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Reappraisal on the Phylogenetic Relationships of the Enigmatic Flightless Bird (Brontornis burmeisteri) Moreno and Mercerat, 1891

Endocranial Anatomy of the Giant Extinct Australian Mihirung Birds (Aves, Dromornithidae)

Palaeontology Group, Flinders University, GPO 2100, Adelaide 5001, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric Buffetaut
Diversity 2021, 13(3), 124;
Received: 29 January 2021 / Revised: 5 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 March 2021 / Published: 15 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Palaeobiology of Flightless Birds)
Dromornithids are an extinct group of large flightless birds from the Cenozoic of Australia. Their record extends from the Eocene to the late Pleistocene. Four genera and eight species are currently recognised, with diversity highest in the Miocene. Dromornithids were once considered ratites, but since the discovery of cranial elements, phylogenetic analyses have placed them near the base of the anseriforms or, most recently, resolved them as stem galliforms. In this study, we use morphometric methods to comprehensively describe dromornithid endocranial morphology for the first time, comparing Ilbandornis woodburnei and three species of Dromornis to one another and to four species of extant basal galloanseres. We reveal that major endocranial reconfiguration was associated with cranial foreshortening in a temporal series along the Dromornis lineage. Five key differences are evident between the brain morphology of Ilbandornis and Dromornis, relating to the medial wulst, the ventral eminence of the caudoventral telencephalon, and morphology of the metencephalon (cerebellum + pons). Additionally, dromornithid brains display distinctive dorsal (rostral position of the wulst), and ventral morphology (form of the maxillomandibular [V2+V3], glossopharyngeal [IX], and vagus [X] cranial nerves), supporting hypotheses that dromornithids are more closely related to basal galliforms than anseriforms. Functional interpretations suggest that dromornithids were specialised herbivores that likely possessed well-developed stereoscopic depth perception, were diurnal and targeted a soft browse trophic niche. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cenozoic fossil birds; Galloanserae; dromornithids; brain morphology Cenozoic fossil birds; Galloanserae; dromornithids; brain morphology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Handley, W.D.; Worthy, T.H. Endocranial Anatomy of the Giant Extinct Australian Mihirung Birds (Aves, Dromornithidae). Diversity 2021, 13, 124.

AMA Style

Handley WD, Worthy TH. Endocranial Anatomy of the Giant Extinct Australian Mihirung Birds (Aves, Dromornithidae). Diversity. 2021; 13(3):124.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Handley, Warren D., and Trevor H. Worthy 2021. "Endocranial Anatomy of the Giant Extinct Australian Mihirung Birds (Aves, Dromornithidae)" Diversity 13, no. 3: 124.

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