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Estimated Density, Population Size and Distribution of the Endangered Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in Forest Remnants in Bangladesh

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Department of Zoology, Jagannath University, Dhaka 1100, Bangladesh
2
Department of Biology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain P.O. Box 15551, United Arab Emirates
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Wink
Diversity 2021, 13(10), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13100490
Received: 9 September 2021 / Revised: 2 October 2021 / Accepted: 4 October 2021 / Published: 6 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Biodiversity Conservation)
Tropical forests are threatened worldwide due to deforestation. In South and Southeast Asia, gibbons (Hylobatidae) are important to seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Most gibbons are threatened due to deforestation. We studied the western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in Bangladesh to determine population size and extent of suitable habitat. We used distance sampling to estimate density across 22 sites in northeastern and southeastern Bangladesh. We used Maxent modeling to determine areas of highly suitable habitat throughout Bangladesh. Density was estimated to be 0.39 ± 0.09groups/km2, and the total estimated population was 468.96 ± 45.56 individuals in 135.31 ± 2.23 groups. The Maxent model accurately predicted gibbon distribution. Vegetation cover, isothermality, annual precipitation, elevation and mean temperature of the warmest quarter influenced distribution. Two areas in the northeast and two areas in the southeast have high potential for gibbon conservation in Bangladesh. We also found significantly more gibbons in areas that had some level of official protection. Thus, we suggest careful evaluation, comprehensive surveys and restoration of habitats identified as suitable for gibbons. We recommend bringing specific sites in the northeastern and southeastern regions under protection to secure habitat for remaining gibbon populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: hoolock gibbon; population estimate; Bangladesh; habitat suitability; habitat loss; distribution modeling; Maxent hoolock gibbon; population estimate; Bangladesh; habitat suitability; habitat loss; distribution modeling; Maxent
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MDPI and ACS Style

Naher, H.; Al-Razi, H.; Ahmed, T.; Hasan, S.; Jaradat, A.; Muzaffar, S.B. Estimated Density, Population Size and Distribution of the Endangered Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in Forest Remnants in Bangladesh. Diversity 2021, 13, 490. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13100490

AMA Style

Naher H, Al-Razi H, Ahmed T, Hasan S, Jaradat A, Muzaffar SB. Estimated Density, Population Size and Distribution of the Endangered Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in Forest Remnants in Bangladesh. Diversity. 2021; 13(10):490. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13100490

Chicago/Turabian Style

Naher, Habibon, Hassan Al-Razi, Tanvir Ahmed, Sabit Hasan, Areej Jaradat, and Sabir B. Muzaffar 2021. "Estimated Density, Population Size and Distribution of the Endangered Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in Forest Remnants in Bangladesh" Diversity 13, no. 10: 490. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13100490

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