Next Article in Journal
Lichen Diversity and Biomonitoring: A Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Mitochondrial Genome Diversity in Collembola: Phylogeny, Dating and Gene Order
Open AccessArticle

First Survey of Heterobranch Sea Slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Island Sangihe, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

1
Centre of Molecular Biodiversity, Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, 53113 Bonn, Germany
2
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado 95115, Indonesia
3
Politeknik Nusa Utara, Tahuna 95812, Sangihe Islands Regency, Indonesia
4
Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado 95115, Indonesia
5
Minaesa Institute of Technology, Tomohon 95439, Indonesia
6
Institute for Pharmaceutical Biology, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University, 53115 Bonn, Germany
7
Institute for Insect Biotechnology, Justus-Liebig_University Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany
8
Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Department of Bioresources, 35394 Giessen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Deceased.
Diversity 2019, 11(9), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11090170
Received: 23 August 2019 / Revised: 10 September 2019 / Accepted: 12 September 2019 / Published: 17 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Diversity)
Indonesia is famous for its underwater biodiversity, which attracts many tourists, especially divers. This is also true for Sangihe Islands Regency, an area composed of several islands in the northern part of North Sulawesi. However, Sangihe Islands Regency is much less known than, e.g., Bunaken National Park (BNP, North Sulawesi). The main island, Sangihe, has recently experienced an increase in tourism and mining activities with potentially high impact on the environment. Recently, monitoring projects began around BNP using marine Heterobranchia as indicators for coral reef health. No information about this taxon exists from the remote islands in North Sulawesi. The present study represents the first monitoring study ever and focuses on marine Heterobranchia around Sangihe. In total, 250 specimens were collected, which could be assigned to Sacoglossa (3), Anthobranchia (19), and Cladobranchia (1). Despite the low number (23 versus 172 in BNP), at least eight species (35%) are not recorded from BNP, probably indicating differences in habitat, but also influence of a strong El Niño year in 2016. Here we also report for the first time a Chromodoris annae specimen mimicking C. elisabethina, and the discovery of a new Phyllidia species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sangihe; North Sulawesi; Indonesia; Heterobranchia; sea slugs; biodiversity; monitoring; tourism Sangihe; North Sulawesi; Indonesia; Heterobranchia; sea slugs; biodiversity; monitoring; tourism
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Undap, N.; Papu, A.; Schillo, D.; Ijong, F.G.; Kaligis, F.; Lepar, M.; Hertzer, C.; Böhringer, N.; König, G.M.; Schäberle, T.F.; Wägele, H. First Survey of Heterobranch Sea Slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Island Sangihe, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Diversity 2019, 11, 170.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop