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Diversity 2018, 10(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020038

Molecular and Morphological Phylogenetic Analyses of New World Cycad Beetles: What They Reveal about Cycad Evolution in the New World

1
USDA APHIS PPQ South Florida, P.O. Box 660520, Miami, FL 33266, USA
2
Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
3
2313 W. Calle Balaustre, Green Valley, AZ 85622, USA
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Montgomery Botanical Center, 11901 Old Cutler Road, Miami, FL 33156, USA
5
School of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 874501, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, USA
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Departamento de Botánica, Universidad de Panamá, Estafeta Universitaria, Panamá City, Panamá
7
Instituto de Ecología, A.C., Red de Ecología Evolutiva, Apartado Postal 63, Antigua a Coatepec 351, El Haya, Xalapa 91070, Veracruz, Mexico
8
Herbario Eizi Matuda (HEM), Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas, Libramiento Norte Poniente 1150, Col. Lajas Maciel, Tuxtla Gutierrez CP29039, Chiapas, Mexico
9
Sociedad Para el Estudio de los Recursos Bióticos de Oaxaca, A.C. Camino Nacional No. 80-b, San Sebastián Tutla CP71246, Oaxaca, Mexico
10
Departamento de Biología, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Río Piedras, P.O. Box 23360, San Juan 00931-3360, Puerto Rico
11
Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agriculture—DPI, 1911 SW 34th St., P.O. Box 147100, Gainesville, FL 32614-7100, USA
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Instituto de Biologia, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin, Colombia
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Nong Nooch Tropical Botanical Garden, 34/1 Moo 7 Na Jomtien, Sattahip 20250, Chonburi, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Abstract

Two major lineages of beetles inhabit cycad cones in the New World: weevils (Curculionoidea) in the subtribe Allocorynina, including the genera Notorhopalotria Tang and O’Brien, Parallocorynus Voss, Protocorynus O’Brien and Tang and Rhopalotria Chevrolat, and beetles in the family Erotylidae, including the genus Pharaxonotha Reitter. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) mitochondrial gene as well as cladistic analysis of morphological characters of the weevils indicate four major radiations, with a probable origin on the cycad genus Dioon Lindl. and comparatively recent host shifts onto Zamia L. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene for erotylid beetles indicates that an undescribed genus restricted to New World Ceratozamia Brongn. is the most early-diverging clade, and this lineage is sister to a large radiation of the genus Pharaxonotha onto Zamia, with apparent host shifts onto Dioon and Ceratozamia. Analysis of beetles are in accord with current models of continental drift in the Caribbean basin, support some proposed species groupings of cycads, but not others, and suggest that pollinator type may impact population genetic structure in their host cycads. View Full-Text
Keywords: Belidae; Oxycoryninae; Erotylidae; Pharaxonothinae; cycad pollination Belidae; Oxycoryninae; Erotylidae; Pharaxonothinae; cycad pollination
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Tang, W.; Xu, G.; O’Brien, C.W.; Calonje, M.; Franz, N.M.; Johnston, M.A.; Taylor, A.; Vovides, A.P.; Pérez-Farrera, M.A.; Salas-Morales, S.H.; Lazcano-Lara, J.C.; Skelley, P.; Lopez-Gallego, C.; Lindström, A.; Rich, S. Molecular and Morphological Phylogenetic Analyses of New World Cycad Beetles: What They Reveal about Cycad Evolution in the New World. Diversity 2018, 10, 38.

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