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Review

Artificial Tears: Biological Role of Their Ingredients in the Management of Dry Eye Disease

1
Service d’Ophtalmologie, Hôpital Bicêtre, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Clinico de Madrid, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Centro Superficie Oculare e Occhio Secco, ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Ospedale L. Sacco, Università di Milano, 20157 Milan, Italy
4
Research Group (UCM 920415), Innovation, Therapy and Pharmaceutical Development in Ophthalmology (InnOftal), Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain
5
Ophthalmic Innovation Center, Santen SAS, 91058 Evry, France
6
Ocular Surface Centre, ISPRE (Instituto di Medicina Oftalmica) Ophthalmic, 16129 Genoa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simon Kaja
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(5), 2434; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23052434
Received: 23 November 2021 / Revised: 17 December 2021 / Accepted: 18 December 2021 / Published: 23 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dry Eye Disease–Focus on Drug Discovery and Development)
Dry eye disease (DED) is the most common ocular surface disease, characterized by insufficient production and/or instability of the tear film. Tear substitutes are usually the first line of treatment for patients with DED. Despite the large variety of tear substitutes available on the market, few studies have been performed to compare their performance. There is a need to better understand the specific mechanical and pharmacological roles of each ingredient composing the different formulations. In this review, we describe the main categories of ingredients composing tear substitutes (e.g., viscosity-enhancing agents, electrolytes, osmo-protectants, antioxidants, lipids, surfactants and preservatives) as well as their effects on the ocular surface, and we provide insight into how certain components of tear substitutes may promote corneal wound healing, and/or counteract inflammation. Based on these considerations, we propose an approach to select the most appropriate tear substitute formulations according to the predominant etiological causes of DED. View Full-Text
Keywords: tear film; artificial tears; tear substitutes; ingredients; excipients; dry eye disease; ocular surface; cornea tear film; artificial tears; tear substitutes; ingredients; excipients; dry eye disease; ocular surface; cornea
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MDPI and ACS Style

Labetoulle, M.; Benitez-del-Castillo, J.M.; Barabino, S.; Herrero Vanrell, R.; Daull, P.; Garrigue, J.-S.; Rolando, M. Artificial Tears: Biological Role of Their Ingredients in the Management of Dry Eye Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 2434. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23052434

AMA Style

Labetoulle M, Benitez-del-Castillo JM, Barabino S, Herrero Vanrell R, Daull P, Garrigue J-S, Rolando M. Artificial Tears: Biological Role of Their Ingredients in the Management of Dry Eye Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(5):2434. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23052434

Chicago/Turabian Style

Labetoulle, Marc, Jose M. Benitez-del-Castillo, Stefano Barabino, Rocio Herrero Vanrell, Philippe Daull, Jean-Sebastien Garrigue, and Maurizio Rolando. 2022. "Artificial Tears: Biological Role of Their Ingredients in the Management of Dry Eye Disease" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 5: 2434. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23052434

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