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Review

The Gestational Effects of Maternal Appetite Axis Molecules on Fetal Growth, Metabolism and Long-Term Metabolic Health: A Systematic Review

1
3rd University Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Attikon University Hospital, Medical School of Athens, Ethnikon and Kapodistriakon University of Athens, 12462 Athens, Greece
2
Nephrology Department, University Hospital of Ioannina, Stavros Niarchos Ave., 45500 Ioannina, Greece
3
Warwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry CV2 2DX, UK
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Institute of Precision Diagnostics and Translational Medicine, Pathology, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire (UHCW) NHS Trust, Coventry CV2 2DX, UK
5
Reproductive Endocrinology Unit, 3rd University Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Attikon University Hospital, Medical School of Athens, 12462 Athens, Greece
6
2nd University Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Aretaieion University Hospital, Medical School of Athens, Ethnikon and Kapodistriakon University of Athens, 12462 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Panagiotis G. Anagnostis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(2), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020695
Received: 15 December 2021 / Revised: 2 January 2022 / Accepted: 4 January 2022 / Published: 9 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms Linking Metabolism and Reproductive Diseases)
Increased maternal food intake is considered a normal pregnancy adjustment. However, the overavailability of nutrients may lead to dysregulated fetal development and increased adiposity, with long-lasting effects on offspring in later life. Several gut-hormone molecules regulate maternal appetite, with both their orexigenic and anorectic effects being in a state of sensitive equilibrium. The aim of this manuscript is to systematically review literature on the effects of maternal gut-hormone molecules on fetal growth and metabolism, birth weight and the later metabolic health of offspring. Maternal serum ghrelin, leptin, IGF-1 and GLP-1 appear to influence fetal growth; however, a lack of consistent and strong correlations of maternal appetite axis hormones with birth weight and the concomitant correlation with fetal and birth waist circumference may suggest that these molecules primarily mediate fetal energy deposition mechanisms, preparing the fetus for survival after birth. Dysregulated intrauterine environments seem to have detrimental, sex-dependent effects on fetal energy stores, affecting not only fetal growth, fat mass deposition and birth weight, but also future metabolic and endocrine wellbeing of offspring. View Full-Text
Keywords: ghrelin; leptin; GLP-1; IGF-1; gut hormones; maternal hyperphagia; fetal adiposity ghrelin; leptin; GLP-1; IGF-1; gut hormones; maternal hyperphagia; fetal adiposity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dimas, A.; Politi, A.; Papaioannou, G.; Barber, T.M.; Weickert, M.O.; Grammatopoulos, D.K.; Kumar, S.; Kalantaridou, S.; Valsamakis, G. The Gestational Effects of Maternal Appetite Axis Molecules on Fetal Growth, Metabolism and Long-Term Metabolic Health: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 695. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020695

AMA Style

Dimas A, Politi A, Papaioannou G, Barber TM, Weickert MO, Grammatopoulos DK, Kumar S, Kalantaridou S, Valsamakis G. The Gestational Effects of Maternal Appetite Axis Molecules on Fetal Growth, Metabolism and Long-Term Metabolic Health: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(2):695. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020695

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dimas, Angelos, Anastasia Politi, George Papaioannou, Thomas M. Barber, Martin O. Weickert, Dimitris K. Grammatopoulos, Sudhesh Kumar, Sophia Kalantaridou, and Georgios Valsamakis. 2022. "The Gestational Effects of Maternal Appetite Axis Molecules on Fetal Growth, Metabolism and Long-Term Metabolic Health: A Systematic Review" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 2: 695. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020695

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