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Article

A Focal Impact Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Xenopus Tadpoles Reveals Behavioral Alterations, Neuroinflammation, and an Astroglial Response

1
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
2
Takara Bio, 2560 Orchard Parkway, San Jose, CA 95131, USA
3
Department of Genetics, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
4
Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Forth Worth, TX 76107, USA
5
Memorial Family Residency Program, 14023 Southwest FWY, Sugarland, TX 77478, USA
6
Baker Hughes, Houston, TX 77073, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Jacek Z. Kubiak and Malgorzata Kloc
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(14), 7578; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147578
Received: 3 May 2022 / Revised: 29 June 2022 / Accepted: 30 June 2022 / Published: 8 July 2022
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a global driver of disability, and we currently lack effective therapies to promote neural repair and recovery. TBI is characterized by an initial insult, followed by a secondary injury cascade, including inflammation, excitotoxicity, and glial cellular response. This cascade incorporates molecular mechanisms that represent potential targets of therapeutic intervention. In this study, we investigate the response to focal impact injury to the optic tectum of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. This injury disrupts the blood-brain barrier, causing edema, and produces deficits in visually-driven behaviors which are resolved within one week. Within 3 h, injured brains show a dramatic transcriptional activation of inflammatory cytokines, upregulation of genes associated with inflammation, and recruitment of microglia to the injury site and surrounding tissue. Shortly afterward, astrocytes undergo morphological alterations and accumulate near the injury site, and these changes persist for at least 48 h following injury. Genes associated with astrocyte reactivity and neuroprotective functions also show elevated levels of expression following injury. Since our results demonstrate that the response to focal impact injury in Xenopus resembles the cellular alterations observed in rodents and other mammalian models, the Xenopus tadpole offers a new, scalable vertebrate model for TBI. View Full-Text
Keywords: TBI; brain injury; inflammation; astrocyte; microglia; Xenopus; tadpole TBI; brain injury; inflammation; astrocyte; microglia; Xenopus; tadpole
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MDPI and ACS Style

Spruiell Eldridge, S.L.; Teetsel, J.F.K.; Torres, R.A.; Ulrich, C.H.; Shah, V.V.; Singh, D.; Zamora, M.J.; Zamora, S.; Sater, A.K. A Focal Impact Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Xenopus Tadpoles Reveals Behavioral Alterations, Neuroinflammation, and an Astroglial Response. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 7578. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147578

AMA Style

Spruiell Eldridge SL, Teetsel JFK, Torres RA, Ulrich CH, Shah VV, Singh D, Zamora MJ, Zamora S, Sater AK. A Focal Impact Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Xenopus Tadpoles Reveals Behavioral Alterations, Neuroinflammation, and an Astroglial Response. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(14):7578. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147578

Chicago/Turabian Style

Spruiell Eldridge, Sydnee L., Jonathan F. K. Teetsel, Ray A. Torres, Christina H. Ulrich, Vrutant V. Shah, Devanshi Singh, Melissa J. Zamora, Steven Zamora, and Amy K. Sater. 2022. "A Focal Impact Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Xenopus Tadpoles Reveals Behavioral Alterations, Neuroinflammation, and an Astroglial Response" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 14: 7578. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147578

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