Next Article in Journal
Mapping and Characterization of HCMV-Specific Unconventional HLA-E-Restricted CD8 T Cell Populations and Associated NK and T Cell Responses Using HLA/Peptide Tetramers and Spectral Flow Cytometry
Previous Article in Journal
Multiscale-Engineered Muscle Constructs: PEG Hydrogel Micro-Patterning on an Electrospun PCL Mat Functionalized with Gold Nanoparticles
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Regulation of Vascular Tone and Blood Pressure Involves Cysteine-Rich LIM-Only Protein 4 (CRP4)
Review

Pros and Cons of Pharmacological Manipulation of cGMP-PDEs in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

1
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
2
Center for Advanced Studies and Technologies (CAST), University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
3
Department of Pharmacy, University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
4
School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7005, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Academic Editor: Jens Schlossmann
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(1), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23010262
Received: 26 November 2021 / Revised: 20 December 2021 / Accepted: 21 December 2021 / Published: 27 December 2021
The cyclic nucleotides, cAMP and cGMP, are ubiquitous second messengers responsible for translating extracellular signals to intracellular biological responses in both normal and tumor cells. When these signals are aberrant or missing, cells may undergo neoplastic transformation or become resistant to chemotherapy. cGMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are attracting tremendous interest as drug targets for many diseases, including cancer, where they regulate cell growth, apoptosis and sensitization to radio- and chemotherapy. In breast cancer, PDE5 inhibition is associated with increased intracellular cGMP levels, which is responsible for the phosphorylation of PKG and other downstream molecules involved in cell proliferation or apoptosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the most relevant studies regarding the controversial role of PDE inhibitors as off-label adjuvants in cancer therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyclic GMP (cGMP); PKG; nitric oxide (NO); soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC); breast cancer; phosphodiesterase (PDE); chemoprevention; cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)–inhibitors; targeted therapy; drug repurposing cyclic GMP (cGMP); PKG; nitric oxide (NO); soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC); breast cancer; phosphodiesterase (PDE); chemoprevention; cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)–inhibitors; targeted therapy; drug repurposing
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Di Iorio, P.; Ronci, M.; Giuliani, P.; Caciagli, F.; Ciccarelli, R.; Caruso, V.; Beggiato, S.; Zuccarini, M. Pros and Cons of Pharmacological Manipulation of cGMP-PDEs in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 262. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23010262

AMA Style

Di Iorio P, Ronci M, Giuliani P, Caciagli F, Ciccarelli R, Caruso V, Beggiato S, Zuccarini M. Pros and Cons of Pharmacological Manipulation of cGMP-PDEs in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(1):262. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23010262

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Iorio, Patrizia, Maurizio Ronci, Patricia Giuliani, Francesco Caciagli, Renata Ciccarelli, Vanni Caruso, Sarah Beggiato, and Mariachiara Zuccarini. 2022. "Pros and Cons of Pharmacological Manipulation of cGMP-PDEs in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 1: 262. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23010262

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop