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Article

The Effect of Polybutylcyanoacrylate Nanoparticles as a Protos Delivery Vehicle on Dental Bone Formation

1
Department of Dentistry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi 61363, Taiwan
2
Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chiayi 61363, Taiwan
3
Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi Branch, 6, Sec. West, Chai-Pu Road, Pu-Tz City, Chia-Yi 61363, Taiwan
4
Graduate Institute of Health-Industry Technology, Research Center for Food and Cosmetic Safety, College of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Tao-Yuan 33303, Taiwan
5
Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung 20401, Taiwan
6
College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Pavel Rossner
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4873; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094873
Received: 15 March 2021 / Revised: 23 April 2021 / Accepted: 1 May 2021 / Published: 5 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Their Biological and Biomedical Application)
Background: Dental implants are commonly used for missing teeth, for which success depends heavily on the quality of the alveolar bone. The creation of an ideal implant site is a key component in shortening the treatment time, which remains clinically challenging. Strontium ranelate (Protos) is an anti-osteoporotic agent which has previously been used to promote bone formation, however the systemic use of Protos has been linked to serious cardiovascular and venous thromboembolic events, thus local delivery strategies may be better suited for this purpose. In this study, a biodegradable, and biocompatible nanocarrier “polybutylcyanoacrylate” (PBCA) loaded with strontium was constructed and its ability to promote bone formation was assessed. Methodology: PBCA nanoparticles loaded with strontium (PBCA-Sr NPs) were synthesized using the emulsion polymerization method, and their physical properties (zeta potential, size and shape) and entrapment efficiency were characterized. Committed MSCs (osteoblasts) were derived from the differentiation of cultured rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which were tested with the PBCA-Sr NPs for cytotoxicity, inflammatory response, bone formation and mineralization. Scanning electron microscopy was performed following a 7-day treatment of PBCA-Sr NPs on decellularized procaine mandibular bone blocks grafted with osteoblasts. Results: Spherical PBCA-Sr NPs of 166.7 ± 2.3 nm, zeta potential of −1.15 ± 0.28 mV with a strontium loading efficiency of 90.04 ± 3.27% were constructed. The presence of strontium was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Rat committed MSCs incubated in PBCA-Sr NPs for 24 hrs showed viabilities in excess of 90% for concentrations of up to 250 ug/mL, the cellular expression of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase were 1.4 and 1.3 times higher than the untreated control, and significantly higher than those treated with strontium alone. Bone formation was evident following osteoblast engraftment on the decellularized procaine mandibular bone block with PBCA-Sr NPs, which appeared superior to those treated with strontium alone. Conclusion: Treatment of committed MSCs with PBCA-Sr NPs showed higher expression of markers of bone formation when compared with strontium alone and which corresponded to greater degree of bone formation observed on the 3-dimensinal decellularized procaine mandibular bone block. Further quantitative analysis on the extent of new bone formation is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: strontium; bone formation; polybutylcyanoacrylate; nanotechnique strontium; bone formation; polybutylcyanoacrylate; nanotechnique
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, L.-C.; Chung, C.-Y.; Chiu, C.-H.; Lin, M.H.-C.; Yang, J.-T. The Effect of Polybutylcyanoacrylate Nanoparticles as a Protos Delivery Vehicle on Dental Bone Formation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4873. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094873

AMA Style

Chang L-C, Chung C-Y, Chiu C-H, Lin MH-C, Yang J-T. The Effect of Polybutylcyanoacrylate Nanoparticles as a Protos Delivery Vehicle on Dental Bone Formation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(9):4873. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094873

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chang, Li-Ching, Chiu-Yen Chung, Chun-Hui Chiu, Martin H.-C. Lin, and Jen-Tsung Yang. 2021. "The Effect of Polybutylcyanoacrylate Nanoparticles as a Protos Delivery Vehicle on Dental Bone Formation" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 9: 4873. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094873

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