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Review

The Chemistry of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Revisited: Outlining Their Role in Biological Macromolecules (DNA, Lipids and Proteins) and Induced Pathologies

1
Cinquima Institute and Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Valladolid University, Paseo de Belén, 7, 47011 Valladolid, Spain
2
Institute of Natural Products and Agrobiology, CSIC-Spanish Research Council, Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez, 38206 La Laguna, Spain
3
Institute of Catalysis and Petrochemistry, CSIC-Spanish Research Council, 28049 Madrid, Spain
4
Sistemas de Biotecnología y Recursos Naturales, 47625 Valladolid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Steffen Reinbothe
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094642
Received: 10 April 2021 / Revised: 25 April 2021 / Accepted: 26 April 2021 / Published: 28 April 2021
Living species are continuously subjected to all extrinsic forms of reactive oxidants and others that are produced endogenously. There is extensive literature on the generation and effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological processes, both in terms of alteration and their role in cellular signaling and regulatory pathways. Cells produce ROS as a controlled physiological process, but increasing ROS becomes pathological and leads to oxidative stress and disease. The induction of oxidative stress is an imbalance between the production of radical species and the antioxidant defense systems, which can cause damage to cellular biomolecules, including lipids, proteins and DNA. Cellular and biochemical experiments have been complemented in various ways to explain the biological chemistry of ROS oxidants. However, it is often unclear how this translates into chemical reactions involving redox changes. This review addresses this question and includes a robust mechanistic explanation of the chemical reactions of ROS and oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: ROS; oxidative stress; macromolecules ROS; oxidative stress; macromolecules
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MDPI and ACS Style

Juan, C.A.; Pérez de la Lastra, J.M.; Plou, F.J.; Pérez-Lebeña, E. The Chemistry of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Revisited: Outlining Their Role in Biological Macromolecules (DNA, Lipids and Proteins) and Induced Pathologies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4642. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094642

AMA Style

Juan CA, Pérez de la Lastra JM, Plou FJ, Pérez-Lebeña E. The Chemistry of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Revisited: Outlining Their Role in Biological Macromolecules (DNA, Lipids and Proteins) and Induced Pathologies. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(9):4642. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094642

Chicago/Turabian Style

Juan, Celia A.; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; Plou, Francisco J.; Pérez-Lebeña, Eduardo. 2021. "The Chemistry of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Revisited: Outlining Their Role in Biological Macromolecules (DNA, Lipids and Proteins) and Induced Pathologies" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 9: 4642. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094642

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