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Seminal Plasma: Relevant for Fertility?

Department of Biomedical & Clinical Sciences (BKV), BKH/Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE-58185 Linköping, Sweden
Department of Medicine and Animal Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, International Excellence Campus for Higher Education and Research “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
Laboratorio de Venómica Estructural y Funcional, Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, C.S.I.C., 46010 Valencia, Spain
Laboratory of Equine Reproduction and Equine Spermatology, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, 10003 Caceres, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jonathan L. Tilly
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4368;
Received: 12 April 2021 / Revised: 18 April 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 22 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Reproduction 2.0)
Seminal plasma (SP), the non-cellular component of semen, is a heterogeneous composite fluid built by secretions of the testis, the epididymis and the accessory sexual glands. Its composition, despite species-specific anatomical peculiarities, consistently contains inorganic ions, specific hormones, proteins and peptides, including cytokines and enzymes, cholesterol, DNA and RNA—the latter often protected within epididymis- or prostate-derived extracellular vesicles. It is beyond question that the SP participates in diverse aspects of sperm function pre-fertilization events. The SP also interacts with the various compartments of the tubular genital tract, triggering changes in gene function that prepares for an eventual successful pregnancy; thus, it ultimately modulates fertility. Despite these concepts, it is imperative to remember that SP-free spermatozoa (epididymal or washed ejaculated) are still fertile, so this review shall focus on the differences between the in vivo roles of the SP following semen deposition in the female and those regarding additions of SP on spermatozoa handled for artificial reproduction, including cryopreservation, from artificial insemination to in vitro fertilization. This review attempts, including our own results on model animal species, to critically summarize the current knowledge of the reproductive roles played by SP components, particularly in our own species, which is increasingly affected by infertility. The ultimate goal is to reconcile the delicate balance between the SP molecular concentration and their concerted effects after temporal exposure in vivo. We aim to appraise the functions of the SP components, their relevance as diagnostic biomarkers and their value as eventual additives to refine reproductive strategies, including biotechnologies, in livestock models and humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: epididymis; accessory sexual glands; ejaculate; seminal fluid; proteome; cytokines; antioxidants; gene expression; female genital tract; fertility; livestock; human epididymis; accessory sexual glands; ejaculate; seminal fluid; proteome; cytokines; antioxidants; gene expression; female genital tract; fertility; livestock; human
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodriguez-Martinez, H.; Martinez, E.A.; Calvete, J.J.; Peña Vega, F.J.; Roca, J. Seminal Plasma: Relevant for Fertility? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4368.

AMA Style

Rodriguez-Martinez H, Martinez EA, Calvete JJ, Peña Vega FJ, Roca J. Seminal Plasma: Relevant for Fertility? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(9):4368.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto, Emilio A. Martinez, Juan J. Calvete, Fernando J. Peña Vega, and Jordi Roca. 2021. "Seminal Plasma: Relevant for Fertility?" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 9: 4368.

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