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Review

The Mystery of Red Blood Cells Extracellular Vesicles in Sleep Apnea with Metabolic Dysfunction

1
Department of Child Health and the Child Health Research Institute, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65201, USA
2
Translational Research Unit, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Aragón (IISAragón), 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cristiano Fava
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094301
Received: 7 March 2021 / Revised: 15 April 2021 / Accepted: 16 April 2021 / Published: 21 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exosomes)
Sleep is very important for overall health and quality of life, while sleep disorder has been associated with several human diseases, namely cardiovascular, metabolic, cognitive, and cancer-related alterations. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common respiratory sleep-disordered breathing, which is caused by the recurrent collapse of the upper airway during sleep. OSA has emerged as a major public health problem and increasing evidence suggests that untreated OSA can lead to the development of various diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, OSA may lead to decreased blood oxygenation and fragmentation of the sleep cycle. The formation of free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) can emerge and react with nitric oxide (NO) to produce peroxynitrite, thereby diminishing the bioavailability of NO. Hypoxia, the hallmark of OSA, refers to a decline of tissue oxygen saturation and affects several types of cells, playing cell-to-cell communication a vital role in the outcome of this interplay. Red blood cells (RBCs) are considered transporters of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, and these RBCs are important interorgan communication systems with additional functions, including participation in the control of systemic NO metabolism, redox regulation, blood rheology, and viscosity. RBCs have been shown to induce endothelial dysfunction and increase cardiac injury. The mechanistic links between changes of RBC functional properties and cardiovascular are largely unknown. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted by most cell types and released in biological fluids both under physiological and pathological conditions. EVs are involved in intercellular communication by transferring complex cargoes including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids from donor cells to recipient cells. Advancing our knowledge about mechanisms of RBC-EVs formation and their pathophysiological relevance may help to shed light on circulating EVs and to translate their application to clinical practice. We will focus on the potential use of RBC-EVs as valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and state-specific cargoes, and possibilities as therapeutic vehicles for drug and gene delivery. The use of RBC-EVs as a precision medicine for the diagnosis and treatment of the patient with sleep disorder will improve the prognosis and the quality of life in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). View Full-Text
Keywords: red blood cells; RBCs; extracellular vesicles (EVs); exosomes; metabolic dysfunction; sleep disordered; therapy; clinical application red blood cells; RBCs; extracellular vesicles (EVs); exosomes; metabolic dysfunction; sleep disordered; therapy; clinical application
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khalyfa, A.; Sanz-Rubio, D. The Mystery of Red Blood Cells Extracellular Vesicles in Sleep Apnea with Metabolic Dysfunction. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4301. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094301

AMA Style

Khalyfa A, Sanz-Rubio D. The Mystery of Red Blood Cells Extracellular Vesicles in Sleep Apnea with Metabolic Dysfunction. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(9):4301. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094301

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khalyfa, Abdelnaby, and David Sanz-Rubio. 2021. "The Mystery of Red Blood Cells Extracellular Vesicles in Sleep Apnea with Metabolic Dysfunction" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 9: 4301. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094301

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