Next Article in Journal
β Cell GHS-R Regulates Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity
Next Article in Special Issue
Brain Protein Expression Profile Confirms the Protective Effect of the ACTH(4–7)PGP Peptide (Semax) in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemia–Reperfusion
Previous Article in Journal
Role of Electrostatic Interactions in Calcitonin Prefibrillar Oligomer-Induced Amyloid Neurotoxicity and Protective Effect of Neuraminidase
Review

Biomarkers of Angiogenesis and Neuroplasticity as Promising Clinical Tools for Stroke Recovery Evaluation

1
Department of Occupational Diseases and Environmental Health, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 91-348 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of General Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz, Poland
3
Biohazard Prevention Centre, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz, Poland
4
Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lodz, Milionowa 14, 93-113 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Valentina Arnao
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 3949; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083949
Received: 2 March 2021 / Revised: 4 April 2021 / Accepted: 8 April 2021 / Published: 11 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Brain Repair and Restoration after Stroke)
Several key issues impact the clinical practice of stroke rehabilitation including a patient’s medical history, stroke experience, the potential for recovery, and the selection of the most effective type of therapy. Until clinicians have answers to these concerns, the treatment and rehabilitation are rather intuitive, with standard procedures carried out based on subjective estimations using clinical scales. Therefore, there is a need to find biomarkers that could predict brain recovery potential in stroke patients. This review aims to present the current state-of-the-art stroke recovery biomarkers that could be used in clinical practice. The revision of biochemical biomarkers has been developed based on stroke recovery processes: angiogenesis and neuroplasticity. This paper provides an overview of the biomarkers that are considered to be ready-to-use in clinical practice and others, considered as future tools. Furthermore, this review shows the utility of biomarkers in the development of the concept of personalized medicine. Enhancing brain neuroplasticity and rehabilitation facilitation are crucial concerns not only after stroke, but in all central nervous system diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: stroke; recovery; biomarkers; prognosis; personalized medicine; rehabilitation stroke; recovery; biomarkers; prognosis; personalized medicine; rehabilitation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wlodarczyk, L.; Szelenberger, R.; Cichon, N.; Saluk-Bijak, J.; Bijak, M.; Miller, E. Biomarkers of Angiogenesis and Neuroplasticity as Promising Clinical Tools for Stroke Recovery Evaluation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 3949. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083949

AMA Style

Wlodarczyk L, Szelenberger R, Cichon N, Saluk-Bijak J, Bijak M, Miller E. Biomarkers of Angiogenesis and Neuroplasticity as Promising Clinical Tools for Stroke Recovery Evaluation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(8):3949. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083949

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wlodarczyk, Lidia; Szelenberger, Rafal; Cichon, Natalia; Saluk-Bijak, Joanna; Bijak, Michal; Miller, Elzbieta. 2021. "Biomarkers of Angiogenesis and Neuroplasticity as Promising Clinical Tools for Stroke Recovery Evaluation" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 8: 3949. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083949

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop