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Current Immunological and Clinical Perspective on Vaccinations in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Are They Safe after All?

1
Center for Medical Education in English, Poznan University of Medical Sciences (PUMS), 61-701 Poznań, Poland
2
Department of Neurology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences (PUMS), 60-355 Poznań, Poland
3
Division of Neurochemistry and Neuropathology, Department of Neurology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences (PUMS), 60-355 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Franco Pandolfi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 3859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083859
Received: 25 February 2021 / Revised: 1 April 2021 / Accepted: 6 April 2021 / Published: 8 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Immunology)
Vaccines work by stimulating the immune system, and their immunogenicity is key in achieving protection against specific pathogens. Questions have been raised whether in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients they could induce disease exacerbation and whether vaccines could possibly act as a trigger in the onset of MS in susceptible populations. So far, no correlation has been found between the vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B, tetanus, human papillomavirus, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella zoster, tuberculosis, yellow fever, or typhoid fever and the risk of MS. Further research is needed for the potential protective implications of the tetanus and Bacillus Calmette–Guerin vaccines in MS patients. Nowadays with the emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and recent vaccinations approval and arrival, the risk-benefit in MS patients with regards to safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination in those treated with immunosuppressive therapies is of paramount importance. In this manuscript, we demonstrate how different vaccine types could be related to the immunopathogenesis of MS and discuss the risks and benefits of different vaccinations in MS patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis (MS); immunology; autoimmunity; vaccination; disease modifying therapy (DMT); vaccination immunology; safety multiple sclerosis (MS); immunology; autoimmunity; vaccination; disease modifying therapy (DMT); vaccination immunology; safety
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MDPI and ACS Style

Witman Tsur, S.; Adrian Zaher, E.; Tsur, M.; Kania, K.; Kalinowska-Łyszczarz, A. Current Immunological and Clinical Perspective on Vaccinations in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Are They Safe after All? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 3859. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083859

AMA Style

Witman Tsur S, Adrian Zaher E, Tsur M, Kania K, Kalinowska-Łyszczarz A. Current Immunological and Clinical Perspective on Vaccinations in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Are They Safe after All? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(8):3859. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083859

Chicago/Turabian Style

Witman Tsur, Shani, Eli Adrian Zaher, Meydan Tsur, Karolina Kania, and Alicja Kalinowska-Łyszczarz. 2021. "Current Immunological and Clinical Perspective on Vaccinations in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Are They Safe after All?" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 8: 3859. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083859

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