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Review

Anti-Angiogenic Therapy: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives

1
Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil (IPOLFG), Rua Prof. Lima Basto, 1099-023 Lisboa, Portugal
2
CEDOC, Chronic Diseases Research Centre, NOVA Medical School, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campo dos Mártires da Pátria, 130, 1169-056 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Silvie Rimpelova
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3765; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073765
Received: 15 March 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 31 March 2021 / Published: 5 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quo Vadis Cancer Research? On Molecular Mechanisms and Drug Discovery)
Anti-angiogenic therapy is an old method to fight cancer that aims to abolish the nutrient and oxygen supply to the tumor cells through the decrease of the vascular network and the avoidance of new blood vessels formation. Most of the anti-angiogenic agents approved for cancer treatment rely on targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) actions, as VEGF signaling is considered the main angiogenesis promotor. In addition to the control of angiogenesis, these drugs can potentiate immune therapy as VEGF also exhibits immunosuppressive functions. Despite the mechanistic rational that strongly supports the benefit of drugs to stop cancer progression, they revealed to be insufficient in most cases. We hypothesize that the rehabilitation of old drugs that interfere with mechanisms of angiogenesis related to tumor microenvironment might represent a promising strategy. In this review, we deepened research on the molecular mechanisms underlying anti-angiogenic strategies and their failure and went further into the alternative mechanisms that impact angiogenesis. We concluded that the combinatory targeting of alternative effectors of angiogenic pathways might be a putative solution for anti-angiogenic therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: neo-angiogenesis; anti-angiogenic therapy; cancer therapy; VEGF; new targets; drug resistance neo-angiogenesis; anti-angiogenic therapy; cancer therapy; VEGF; new targets; drug resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lopes-Coelho, F.; Martins, F.; Pereira, S.A.; Serpa, J. Anti-Angiogenic Therapy: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 3765. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073765

AMA Style

Lopes-Coelho F, Martins F, Pereira SA, Serpa J. Anti-Angiogenic Therapy: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(7):3765. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073765

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lopes-Coelho, Filipa, Filipa Martins, Sofia A. Pereira, and Jacinta Serpa. 2021. "Anti-Angiogenic Therapy: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 7: 3765. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073765

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