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Article

Fermented Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Improves Sleep Behaviors in Fruit Flies and Rodent Models

1
Department of Public Health Science, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
2
Interdisciplinary Program in Precision Public Health, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
3
Department of Food Nutrition, Sangmyung University, Seoul 03016, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Reinhard Bauer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073537
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 20 March 2021 / Accepted: 25 March 2021 / Published: 29 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biology)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus brevis-fermented γ-aminobutyric acid (LB-GABA) on sleep behaviors in invertebrate and vertebrate models. In Drosophila melanogaster, LB-GABA-treated group showed an 8–9%-longer sleep duration than normal group did. LB-GABA-treated group also showed a 46.7% lower level of nighttime activity with a longer (11%) sleep duration under caffeine-induced arousal conditions. The LB-GABA-mediated inhibition of activity was confirmed as a reduction of total movement of flies using a video tracking system. In the pentobarbital-induced sleep test in mice, LB-GABA (100 mg/kg) shortened the time of onset of sleep by 32.2% and extended sleeping time by 59%. In addition, mRNA and protein level of GABAergic/Serotonergic neurotransmitters were upregulated following treatment with LB-GABA (2.0%). In particular, intestine- and brain-derived GABAA protein levels were increased by sevenfold and fivefold, respectively. The electroencephalography (EEG) analysis in rats showed that LB-GABA significantly increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) (53%) with the increase in theta (θ, 59%) and delta (δ, 63%) waves, leading to longer sleep time (35%), under caffeine-induced insomnia conditions. LB-GABA showed a dose-dependent agonist activity on human GABAA receptor with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 3.44 µg/mL in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: γ-aminobutyric acid; GABA receptor; sleep promotion; non-rapid eye movement; Drosophila melanogaster; rodents γ-aminobutyric acid; GABA receptor; sleep promotion; non-rapid eye movement; Drosophila melanogaster; rodents
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jeong, A.-H.; Hwang, J.; Jo, K.; Kim, S.; Ahn, Y.; Suh, H.J.; Choi, H.-S. Fermented Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Improves Sleep Behaviors in Fruit Flies and Rodent Models. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 3537. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073537

AMA Style

Jeong A-H, Hwang J, Jo K, Kim S, Ahn Y, Suh HJ, Choi H-S. Fermented Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Improves Sleep Behaviors in Fruit Flies and Rodent Models. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(7):3537. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073537

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jeong, A-Hyun, Jisu Hwang, Kyungae Jo, Singeun Kim, Yejin Ahn, Hyung J. Suh, and Hyeon-Son Choi. 2021. "Fermented Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Improves Sleep Behaviors in Fruit Flies and Rodent Models" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 7: 3537. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073537

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