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Review

Post-Translational Modifications of Retroviral HIV-1 Gag Precursors: An Overview of Their Biological Role

Architecture et Réactivité de l’ARN, UPR 9002, IBMC, CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, 2 allée Konrad Roentgen, CEDEX F-67084 Strasbourg, France
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kwang-Hyun Baek
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 2871; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062871
Received: 25 January 2021 / Revised: 6 March 2021 / Accepted: 9 March 2021 / Published: 11 March 2021
Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) play key roles in eukaryotes since they finely regulate numerous mechanisms used to diversify the protein functions and to modulate their signaling networks. Besides, these chemical modifications also take part in the viral hijacking of the host, and also contribute to the cellular response to viral infections. All domains of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag precursor of 55-kDa (Pr55Gag), which is the central actor for viral RNA specific recruitment and genome packaging, are post-translationally modified. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about HIV-1 Pr55Gag PTMs such as myristoylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, methylation, and ISGylation in order to figure out how these modifications affect the precursor functions and viral replication. Indeed, in HIV-1, PTMs regulate the precursor trafficking between cell compartments and its anchoring at the plasma membrane, where viral assembly occurs. Interestingly, PTMs also allow Pr55Gag to hijack the cell machinery to achieve viral budding as they drive recognition between viral proteins or cellular components such as the ESCRT machinery. Finally, we will describe and compare PTMs of several other retroviral Gag proteins to give a global overview of their role in the retroviral life cycle. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; Pr55Gag precursor; post-translational modifications; retroviral Gag precursors; retroviral life cycle HIV-1; Pr55Gag precursor; post-translational modifications; retroviral Gag precursors; retroviral life cycle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bussienne, C.; Marquet, R.; Paillart, J.-C.; Bernacchi, S. Post-Translational Modifications of Retroviral HIV-1 Gag Precursors: An Overview of Their Biological Role. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2871. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062871

AMA Style

Bussienne C, Marquet R, Paillart J-C, Bernacchi S. Post-Translational Modifications of Retroviral HIV-1 Gag Precursors: An Overview of Their Biological Role. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(6):2871. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062871

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bussienne, Charlotte, Roland Marquet, Jean-Christophe Paillart, and Serena Bernacchi. 2021. "Post-Translational Modifications of Retroviral HIV-1 Gag Precursors: An Overview of Their Biological Role" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 6: 2871. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062871

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