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Palindromes in DNA—A Risk for Genome Stability and Implications in Cancer

Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Academic Editor: Miroslav Chovanec
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 2840; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062840
Received: 15 February 2021 / Revised: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 March 2021 / Published: 11 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genome Maintenance and Cancer)
A palindrome in DNA consists of two closely spaced or adjacent inverted repeats. Certain palindromes have important biological functions as parts of various cis-acting elements and protein binding sites. However, many palindromes are known as fragile sites in the genome, sites prone to chromosome breakage which can lead to various genetic rearrangements or even cell death. The ability of certain palindromes to initiate genetic recombination lies in their ability to form secondary structures in DNA which can cause replication stalling and double-strand breaks. Given their recombinogenic nature, it is not surprising that palindromes in the human genome are involved in genetic rearrangements in cancer cells as well as other known recurrent translocations and deletions associated with certain syndromes in humans. Here, we bring an overview of current understanding and knowledge on molecular mechanisms of palindrome recombinogenicity and discuss possible implications of DNA palindromes in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, we overview the data on known palindromic sequences in the human genome and efforts to estimate their number and distribution, as well as underlying mechanisms of genetic rearrangements specific palindromic sequences cause. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA palindromes; quasipalindromes; palindromic amplification; palindrome-mediated genetic recombination; carcinogenesis DNA palindromes; quasipalindromes; palindromic amplification; palindrome-mediated genetic recombination; carcinogenesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Svetec Miklenić, M.; Svetec, I.K. Palindromes in DNA—A Risk for Genome Stability and Implications in Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2840. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062840

AMA Style

Svetec Miklenić M, Svetec IK. Palindromes in DNA—A Risk for Genome Stability and Implications in Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(6):2840. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062840

Chicago/Turabian Style

Svetec Miklenić, Marina, and Ivan K. Svetec. 2021. "Palindromes in DNA—A Risk for Genome Stability and Implications in Cancer" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 6: 2840. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062840

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