Next Article in Journal
Therapeutic Targeting of the Tumour Microenvironment in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Next Article in Special Issue
Risk Factors for Retinal Ganglion Cell Distress in Glaucoma and Neuroprotective Potential Intervention
Previous Article in Journal
Why Do Muse Stem Cells Present an Enduring Stress Capacity? Hints from a Comparative Proteome Analysis
Article

Retinal Molecular Changes Are Associated with Neuroinflammation and Loss of RGCs in an Experimental Model of Glaucoma

1
Instituto de Investigaciones Oftalmológicas Ramón Castroviejo, Grupo UCM 920105, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Departamento de Inmunología, Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Oftalmología y ORL, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28037 Madrid, Spain
3
Departamento de Genética, Facultad de CC, Biológicas, Fisiología y Microbiología, Grupo UCM 951579, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
4
Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Grupo UCM 951579, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
5
Servicio de Endocrinología, Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología, Obesidad y Nutrición, 28009 Madrid, Spain
6
Departamento de Oftalmología, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria Virgen de la Arrixaca, Universidad de Murcia, 30120 Murcia, Spain
7
Departamento de Inmunología, Facultad de Medicina, Oftalmología y ORL, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Luis Alarcon-Martinez
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2066; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042066
Received: 26 January 2021 / Revised: 14 February 2021 / Accepted: 17 February 2021 / Published: 19 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retina Degeneration, Neuroprotection and Repair)
Signaling mediated by cytokines and chemokines is involved in glaucoma-associated neuroinflammation and in the damage of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Using multiplexed immunoassay and immunohistochemical techniques in a glaucoma mouse model at different time points after ocular hypertension (OHT), we analyzed (i) the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, BDNF, VEGF, and fractalkine; and (ii) the number of Brn3a+ RGCs. In OHT eyes, there was an upregulation of (i) IFN-γ at days 3, 5, and 15; (ii) IL-4 at days 1, 3, 5, and 7 and IL-10 at days 3 and 5 (coinciding with downregulation of IL1-β at days 1, 5, and 7); (iii) IL-6 at days 1, 3, and 5; (iv) fractalkine and VEGF at day 1; and (v) BDNF at days 1, 3, 7, and 15. In contralateral eyes, there were (i) an upregulation of IL-1β at days 1 and 3 and a downregulation at day 7, coinciding with the downregulation of IL4 at days 3 and 5 and the upregulation at day 7; (ii) an upregulation of IL-6 at days 1, 5, and 7 and a downregulation at 15 days; (iii) an upregulation of IL-10 at days 3 and 7; and (iv) an upregulation of IL-17 at day 15. In OHT eyes, there was a reduction in the Brn3a+ RGCs number at days 3, 5, 7, and 15. OHT changes cytokine levels in both OHT and contralateral eyes at different time points after OHT induction, confirming the immune system involvement in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokines; BDNF; VEGF; fractalkine; glaucoma; ocular hypertension; microglia; retinal ganglion cells (RGCs); Iba-1; Brn3a cytokines; BDNF; VEGF; fractalkine; glaucoma; ocular hypertension; microglia; retinal ganglion cells (RGCs); Iba-1; Brn3a
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Fernández-Albarral, J.A.; Salazar, J.J.; de Hoz, R.; Marco, E.M.; Martín-Sánchez, B.; Flores-Salguero, E.; Salobrar-García, E.; López-Cuenca, I.; Barrios-Sabador, V.; Avilés-Trigueros, M.; Valiente-Soriano, F.J.; Miralles de Imperial-Ollero, J.A.; Vidal-Sanz, M.; Triviño, A.; Ramírez, J.M.; López-Gallardo, M.; Ramírez, A.I. Retinal Molecular Changes Are Associated with Neuroinflammation and Loss of RGCs in an Experimental Model of Glaucoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2066. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042066

AMA Style

Fernández-Albarral JA, Salazar JJ, de Hoz R, Marco EM, Martín-Sánchez B, Flores-Salguero E, Salobrar-García E, López-Cuenca I, Barrios-Sabador V, Avilés-Trigueros M, Valiente-Soriano FJ, Miralles de Imperial-Ollero JA, Vidal-Sanz M, Triviño A, Ramírez JM, López-Gallardo M, Ramírez AI. Retinal Molecular Changes Are Associated with Neuroinflammation and Loss of RGCs in an Experimental Model of Glaucoma. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):2066. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042066

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernández-Albarral, José A., Juan J. Salazar, Rosa de Hoz, Eva M. Marco, Beatriz Martín-Sánchez, Elena Flores-Salguero, Elena Salobrar-García, Inés López-Cuenca, Vicente Barrios-Sabador, Marcelino Avilés-Trigueros, Francisco J. Valiente-Soriano, Juan A. Miralles de Imperial-Ollero, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Alberto Triviño, José M. Ramírez, Meritxell López-Gallardo, and Ana I. Ramírez. 2021. "Retinal Molecular Changes Are Associated with Neuroinflammation and Loss of RGCs in an Experimental Model of Glaucoma" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 4: 2066. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042066

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop