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Review

3D Printed Multiphasic Scaffolds for Osteochondral Repair: Challenges and Opportunities

1
Electrical and Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
2
ACMD, St Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne, Fitzroy, VIC 3065, Australia
3
Department of Surgery, The University of Melbourne, St Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne, Fitzroy, VIC 3065, Australia
4
ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
5
Department of Orthopaedics, St Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne, Fitzroy, VIC 3065, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Barbara Zavan, Stefano Sivolella and Alfredo Ronca
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(22), 12420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212420
Received: 14 October 2021 / Revised: 11 November 2021 / Accepted: 12 November 2021 / Published: 17 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing and Biomaterials for Biological and Medical Application)
Osteochondral (OC) defects are debilitating joint injuries characterized by the loss of full thickness articular cartilage along with the underlying calcified cartilage through to the subchondral bone. While current surgical treatments can provide some relief from pain, none can fully repair all the components of the OC unit and restore its native function. Engineering OC tissue is challenging due to the presence of the three distinct tissue regions. Recent advances in additive manufacturing provide unprecedented control over the internal microstructure of bioscaffolds, the patterning of growth factors and the encapsulation of potentially regenerative cells. These developments are ushering in a new paradigm of ‘multiphasic’ scaffold designs in which the optimal micro-environment for each tissue region is individually crafted. Although the adoption of these techniques provides new opportunities in OC research, it also introduces challenges, such as creating tissue interfaces, integrating multiple fabrication techniques and co-culturing different cells within the same construct. This review captures the considerations and capabilities in developing 3D printed OC scaffolds, including materials, fabrication techniques, mechanical function, biological components and design. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteochondral; articular cartilage; calcified cartilage; subchondral bone; multiphasic; biofabrication; 3D printing osteochondral; articular cartilage; calcified cartilage; subchondral bone; multiphasic; biofabrication; 3D printing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Doyle, S.E.; Snow, F.; Duchi, S.; O’Connell, C.D.; Onofrillo, C.; Di Bella, C.; Pirogova, E. 3D Printed Multiphasic Scaffolds for Osteochondral Repair: Challenges and Opportunities. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 12420. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212420

AMA Style

Doyle SE, Snow F, Duchi S, O’Connell CD, Onofrillo C, Di Bella C, Pirogova E. 3D Printed Multiphasic Scaffolds for Osteochondral Repair: Challenges and Opportunities. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(22):12420. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212420

Chicago/Turabian Style

Doyle, Stephanie E., Finn Snow, Serena Duchi, Cathal D. O’Connell, Carmine Onofrillo, Claudia Di Bella, and Elena Pirogova. 2021. "3D Printed Multiphasic Scaffolds for Osteochondral Repair: Challenges and Opportunities" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 22: 12420. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212420

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