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Review

Molecular and Clinical Features of EGFR-TKI-Associated Lung Injury

1
Department of Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8666, Japan
2
Advanced Cancer Translational Research Institute, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020792
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 12 January 2021 / Accepted: 12 January 2021 / Published: 14 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2.0)
The tyrosine kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) plays critical roles in cell proliferation, regeneration, tumorigenesis, and anticancer resistance. Non-small-cell lung cancer patients who responded to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and obtained survival benefits had somatic EGFR mutations. EGFR-TKI-related adverse events (AEs) are usually tolerable and manageable, although serious AEs, including lung injury (specifically, interstitial lung disease (ILD), causing 58% of EGFR-TKI treatment-related deaths), occur infrequently. The etiopathogenesis of EGFR-TKI-induced ILD remains unknown. Risk factors, such as tobacco exposure, pre-existing lung fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and poor performance status, indicate that lung inflammatory circumstances may worsen with EGFR-TKI treatment because of impaired epithelial healing of lung injuries. There is limited evidence from preclinical and clinical studies of the mechanisms underlying EGFR-TKI-induced ILD in the available literature. Herein, we evaluated the relationship between EGFR-TKIs and AEs, especially ILD. Recent reports on mechanisms inducing lung injury or resistance in cytokine-rich circumstances were reviewed. We discussed the relevance of cytotoxic agents or immunotherapeutic agents in combination with EGFR-TKIs as a potential mechanism of EGFR-TKI-related lung injury and reviewed recent developments in diagnostics and therapeutics that facilitate recovery from lung injury or overcoming resistance to anti-EGFR treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: EGFR-TKIs; lung injury; inflammation; TNF EGFR-TKIs; lung injury; inflammation; TNF
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ohmori, T.; Yamaoka, T.; Ando, K.; Kusumoto, S.; Kishino, Y.; Manabe, R.; Sagara, H. Molecular and Clinical Features of EGFR-TKI-Associated Lung Injury. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 792. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020792

AMA Style

Ohmori T, Yamaoka T, Ando K, Kusumoto S, Kishino Y, Manabe R, Sagara H. Molecular and Clinical Features of EGFR-TKI-Associated Lung Injury. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):792. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020792

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ohmori, Tohru, Toshimitsu Yamaoka, Koichi Ando, Sojiro Kusumoto, Yasunari Kishino, Ryou Manabe, and Hironori Sagara. 2021. "Molecular and Clinical Features of EGFR-TKI-Associated Lung Injury" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 2: 792. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020792

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