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Norepinephrine Regulation of Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus Astrocyte Glycogen Metabolism

School of Basic Pharmaceutical and Toxicological Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana Monroe, Monroe, LA 71201, USA
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020759 (registering DOI)
Received: 8 December 2020 / Revised: 4 January 2021 / Accepted: 9 January 2021 / Published: 13 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glial Cells and Energy Intake: A Field That Is Gaining Weight)
The catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) links hindbrain metabolic-sensory neurons with key glucostatic control structures in the brain, including the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). In the brain, the glycogen reserve is maintained within the astrocyte cell compartment as an alternative energy source to blood-derived glucose. VMN astrocytes are direct targets for metabolic stimulus-driven noradrenergic signaling due to their adrenergic receptor expression (AR). The current review discusses recent affirmative evidence that neuro-metabolic stability in the VMN may be shaped by NE influence on astrocyte glycogen metabolism and glycogen-derived substrate fuel supply. Noradrenergic modulation of estrogen receptor (ER) control of VMN glycogen phosphorylase (GP) isoform expression supports the interaction of catecholamine and estradiol signals in shaping the physiological stimulus-specific control of astrocyte glycogen mobilization. Sex-dimorphic NE control of glycogen synthase and GP brain versus muscle type proteins may be due, in part, to the dissimilar noradrenergic governance of astrocyte AR and ER variant profiles in males versus females. Forthcoming advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanistic framework for catecholamine stimulus integration with other regulatory inputs to VMN astrocytes will undoubtedly reveal useful new molecular targets in each sex for glycogen mediated defense of neuronal metabolic equilibrium during neuro-glucopenia. View Full-Text
Keywords: ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus; norepinephrine; adrenergic receptor; glycogen phosphorylase brain type; laser-catapult microdissection ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus; norepinephrine; adrenergic receptor; glycogen phosphorylase brain type; laser-catapult microdissection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Briski, K.P.; Ibrahim, M.M.H.; Mahmood, A.S.M.H.; Alshamrani, A.A. Norepinephrine Regulation of Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus Astrocyte Glycogen Metabolism. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 759. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020759

AMA Style

Briski KP, Ibrahim MMH, Mahmood ASMH, Alshamrani AA. Norepinephrine Regulation of Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus Astrocyte Glycogen Metabolism. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):759. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020759

Chicago/Turabian Style

Briski, Karen P.; Ibrahim, Mostafa M.H.; Mahmood, A. S.M.H.; Alshamrani, Ayed A. 2021. "Norepinephrine Regulation of Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus Astrocyte Glycogen Metabolism" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 2: 759. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020759

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