Next Article in Journal
Proanthocyanidins Maintain Cardiac Ionic Homeostasis in Aldosterone-Induced Hypertension and Heart Failure
Previous Article in Journal
Regulation of the Golgi Apparatus by p38 and JNK Kinases during Cellular Stress Responses
Article

Hypoxic and Hyperoxic Breathing as a Complement to Low-Intensity Physical Exercise Programs: A Proof-of-Principle Study

1
Environmental, Occupational, Aging (Integrative) Physiology Laboratory, Haute Ecole Bruxelles-Brabant (HE2B), 1180 Brussels, Belgium
2
Physical Activity Teaching Unit, Motor Sciences Faculty, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 1050 Brussels, Belgium
3
DAN Europe Research Division, 1160 Brussels, Belgium
4
Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Piazza dell’Ospedale Maggiore, 3, 20162 Milan, Italy
5
Centre for Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy, Queen Astrid Military Hospital, 1120 Brussels, Belgium
6
Council for Agricultural Research and Economics—Food and Nutrition Research Centre (C.R.E.A.-AN), 00178 Rome, Italy
7
Environmental Physiology & Medicine Lab, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Catalina Carrasco-Pozo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(17), 9600; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179600
Received: 31 July 2021 / Revised: 27 August 2021 / Accepted: 1 September 2021 / Published: 4 September 2021
Inflammation is an adaptive response to both external and internal stimuli including infection, trauma, surgery, ischemia-reperfusion, or malignancy. A number of studies indicate that physical activity is an effective means of reducing acute systemic and low-level inflammation occurring in different pathological conditions and in the recovery phase after disease. As a proof-of-principle, we hypothesized that low-intensity workout performed under modified oxygen supply would elicit a “metabolic exercise” inducing a hormetic response, increasing the metabolic load and oxidative stress with the same overall effect expected after a higher intensity or charge exercise. Herein, we report the effect of a 5-week low-intensity, non-training, exercise program in a group of young healthy subjects in combination with the exposure to hyperoxia (30% and 100% pO2, respectively) or light hypoxia (15% pO2) during workout sessions on several inflammation and oxidative stress parameters, namely hemoglobin (Hb), redox state, nitric oxide metabolite (NOx), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), inflammatory cytokine expression (TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10), and renal functional biomarkers (creatinine, neopterin, and urates). We confirmed our previous reports demonstrating that intermittent hyperoxia induces the normobaric oxygen paradox (NOP), a response overlapping the exposure to hypoxia. Our data also suggest that the administration of modified air composition is an expedient complement to a light physical exercise program to achieve a significant modulation of inflammatory and immune parameters, including cytokines expression, iNOS activity, and oxidative stress parameters. This strategy can be of pivotal interest in all those conditions characterized by the inability to achieve a sufficient workload intensity, such as severe cardiovascular alterations and articular injuries failing to effectively gain a significant improvement of physical capacity. View Full-Text
Keywords: normobaric oxygen paradox; hypoxia; hyperoxia; physical activity; inflammation; immune response; oxidative stress; rehabilitation normobaric oxygen paradox; hypoxia; hyperoxia; physical activity; inflammation; immune response; oxidative stress; rehabilitation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Balestra, C.; Lambrechts, K.; Mrakic-Sposta, S.; Vezzoli, A.; Levenez, M.; Germonpré, P.; Virgili, F.; Bosco, G.; Lafère, P. Hypoxic and Hyperoxic Breathing as a Complement to Low-Intensity Physical Exercise Programs: A Proof-of-Principle Study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9600. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179600

AMA Style

Balestra C, Lambrechts K, Mrakic-Sposta S, Vezzoli A, Levenez M, Germonpré P, Virgili F, Bosco G, Lafère P. Hypoxic and Hyperoxic Breathing as a Complement to Low-Intensity Physical Exercise Programs: A Proof-of-Principle Study. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(17):9600. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179600

Chicago/Turabian Style

Balestra, Costantino, Kate Lambrechts, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Alessandra Vezzoli, Morgan Levenez, Peter Germonpré, Fabio Virgili, Gerardo Bosco, and Pierre Lafère. 2021. "Hypoxic and Hyperoxic Breathing as a Complement to Low-Intensity Physical Exercise Programs: A Proof-of-Principle Study" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 17: 9600. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179600

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop