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Review

Cripto-1 as a Key Factor in Tumor Progression, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cells

by 1,2,3,4,*, 2 and 3,5
1
Department of Pathology, College of Graduate Studies, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL 60515, USA
2
Chicago College of Optometry, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL 60515, USA
3
Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL 60515, USA
4
College of Dental Medicine-Illinois, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL 60515, USA
5
Master of Public Health Program, College of Graduate Studies, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL 60515, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: A. Phillip West
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(17), 9280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179280
Received: 23 July 2021 / Revised: 23 August 2021 / Accepted: 24 August 2021 / Published: 27 August 2021
Cripto-1 is an essential protein for human development that plays a key role in the early phase of gastrulation in the differentiation of an embryo as well as assists with wound healing processes. Importantly, Cripto-1 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition to turn fixed epithelial cells into a more mobile mesenchymal phenotype through the downregulation of epithelial adhesion molecules such as E-cadherin, occludins, and claudins, and the upregulation of mesenchymal, mobile proteins, such as N-cadherin, Snail, and Slug. Consequently, Cripto-1’s role in inducing EMT to promote cell motility is beneficial in embryogenesis, but detrimental in the formation, progression and metastasis of malignant tumors. Indeed, Cripto-1 is found to be upregulated in most cancers, such as breast, lung, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, cervical, ovarian, prostate, and skin cancers. Through its role in EMT, Cripto-1 can remodel cancer cells to enable them to travel through the extracellular matrix as well as blood and lymphatic vessels to metastasize to different organs. Additionally, Cripto-1 promotes the survival of cancer stem cells, which can lead to relapse in cancer patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cripto-1; tumor progression; EMT; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; cancer stem cells; biomarker; therapeutic target; breast cancer; melanoma; metastasis Cripto-1; tumor progression; EMT; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; cancer stem cells; biomarker; therapeutic target; breast cancer; melanoma; metastasis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arnouk, H.; Yum, G.; Shah, D. Cripto-1 as a Key Factor in Tumor Progression, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9280. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179280

AMA Style

Arnouk H, Yum G, Shah D. Cripto-1 as a Key Factor in Tumor Progression, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(17):9280. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179280

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arnouk, Hilal, Gloria Yum, and Dean Shah. 2021. "Cripto-1 as a Key Factor in Tumor Progression, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cells" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 17: 9280. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179280

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