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“Molecular Masks” for ACE2 to Effectively and Safely Block SARS-CoV-2 Virus Entry

Adaptive Immunity and the Risk of Autoreactivity in COVID-19

School of Health and Biomedical Science, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia
Tasmanian Vaccine Trial Centre, Clifford Craig Foundation, Launceston General Hospital, Launceston, TAS 7250, Australia
School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250, Australia
Department of Immunology and Pathology, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Young Min Park
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8965;
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 3 August 2021 / Accepted: 17 August 2021 / Published: 20 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infections as Triggers of Autoimmunity)
While first and foremost considered a respiratory infection, COVID-19 can result in complications affecting multiple organs. Immune responses in COVID-19 can both protect against the disease as well as drive it. Insights into these responses, and specifically the targets being recognised by the immune system, are of vital importance in understanding the side effects of COVID-19 and associated pathologies. The body’s adaptive immunity recognises and responds against specific targets (antigens) expressed by foreign pathogens, but not usually to target self-antigens. However, if the immune system becomes dysfunctional, adaptive immune cells can react to self-antigens, which can result in autoimmune disease. Viral infections are well reported to be associated with, or exacerbate, autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In COVID-19 patients, both new onset MS and SLE, as well as the occurrence of other autoimmune-like pathologies, have been reported. Additionally, the presence of autoantibodies, both with and without known associations to autoimmune diseases, have been found. Herein we describe the mechanisms of virally induced autoimmunity and summarise some of the emerging reports on the autoimmune-like diseases and autoreactivity that is reported to be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; autoimmunity; autoantibodies; molecular mimicry COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; autoimmunity; autoantibodies; molecular mimicry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moody, R.; Wilson, K.; Flanagan, K.L.; Jaworowski, A.; Plebanski, M. Adaptive Immunity and the Risk of Autoreactivity in COVID-19. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 8965.

AMA Style

Moody R, Wilson K, Flanagan KL, Jaworowski A, Plebanski M. Adaptive Immunity and the Risk of Autoreactivity in COVID-19. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(16):8965.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moody, Rhiane, Kirsty Wilson, Katie L. Flanagan, Anthony Jaworowski, and Magdalena Plebanski. 2021. "Adaptive Immunity and the Risk of Autoreactivity in COVID-19" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 16: 8965.

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