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Article

A Fork Trap in the Chromosomal Termination Area Is Highly Conserved across All Escherichia coli Phylogenetic Groups

1
Division of Biosciences, College of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, UK
2
Department of Biology, University of York, Wentworth Way, York YO10 5DD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Federico Lazzaro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 7928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157928
Received: 25 June 2021 / Revised: 21 July 2021 / Accepted: 22 July 2021 / Published: 25 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Dynamics)
Termination of DNA replication, the final stage of genome duplication, is surprisingly complex, and failures to bring DNA synthesis to an accurate conclusion can impact genome stability and cell viability. In Escherichia coli, termination takes place in a specialised termination area opposite the origin. A ‘replication fork trap’ is formed by unidirectional fork barriers via the binding of Tus protein to genomic ter sites. Such a fork trap system is found in some bacterial species, but it appears not to be a general feature of bacterial chromosomes. The biochemical properties of fork trap systems have been extensively characterised, but little is known about their precise physiological roles. In this study, we compare locations and distributions of ter terminator sites in E. coli genomes across all phylogenetic groups, including Shigella. Our analysis shows that all ter sites are highly conserved in E. coli, with slightly more variability in the Shigella genomes. Our sequence analysis of ter sites and Tus proteins shows that the fork trap is likely to be active in all strains investigated. In addition, our analysis shows that the dif chromosome dimer resolution site is consistently located between the innermost ter sites, even if rearrangements have changed the location of the innermost termination area. Our data further support the idea that the replication fork trap has an important physiological role that provides an evolutionary advantage. View Full-Text
Keywords: replication fork trap; termination of DNA replication; bacterial chromosome; chromosomal architecture; ter terminator sequence; Tus protein; chromosomal over-replication replication fork trap; termination of DNA replication; bacterial chromosome; chromosomal architecture; ter terminator sequence; Tus protein; chromosomal over-replication
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MDPI and ACS Style

Goodall, D.J.; Jameson, K.H.; Hawkins, M.; Rudolph, C.J. A Fork Trap in the Chromosomal Termination Area Is Highly Conserved across All Escherichia coli Phylogenetic Groups. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 7928. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157928

AMA Style

Goodall DJ, Jameson KH, Hawkins M, Rudolph CJ. A Fork Trap in the Chromosomal Termination Area Is Highly Conserved across All Escherichia coli Phylogenetic Groups. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(15):7928. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157928

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goodall, Daniel J., Katie H. Jameson, Michelle Hawkins, and Christian J. Rudolph 2021. "A Fork Trap in the Chromosomal Termination Area Is Highly Conserved across All Escherichia coli Phylogenetic Groups" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 15: 7928. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157928

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