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Article

Oligomerization and Nitration of the Grass Pollen Allergen Phl p 5 by Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Peroxynitrite: Reaction Products, Kinetics, and Health Effects

1
Multiphase Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, Germany
2
Division 1.5 Protein Analysis, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), 12489 Berlin, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Department of Molecular Spectroscopy, Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, 55128 Mainz, Germany.
Academic Editor: Claudiu T. Supuran
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7616; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147616
Received: 1 June 2021 / Revised: 8 July 2021 / Accepted: 13 July 2021 / Published: 16 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
The allergenic and inflammatory potential of proteins can be enhanced by chemical modification upon exposure to atmospheric or physiological oxidants. The molecular mechanisms and kinetics of such modifications, however, have not yet been fully resolved. We investigated the oligomerization and nitration of the grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 by ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and peroxynitrite (ONOO). Within several hours of exposure to atmospherically relevant concentration levels of O3 and NO2, up to 50% of Phl p 5 were converted into protein oligomers, likely by formation of dityrosine cross-links. Assuming that tyrosine residues are the preferential site of nitration, up to 10% of the 12 tyrosine residues per protein monomer were nitrated. For the reaction with peroxynitrite, the largest oligomer mass fractions (up to 50%) were found for equimolar concentrations of peroxynitrite over tyrosine residues. With excess peroxynitrite, the nitration degrees increased up to 40% whereas the oligomer mass fractions decreased to 20%. Our results suggest that protein oligomerization and nitration are competing processes, which is consistent with a two-step mechanism involving a reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI), as observed for other proteins. The modified proteins can promote pro-inflammatory cellular signaling that may contribute to chronic inflammation and allergies in response to air pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: tyrosine; nitrotyrosine; dityrosine; nitration degree; protein dimer; protein oligomer tyrosine; nitrotyrosine; dityrosine; nitration degree; protein dimer; protein oligomer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Backes, A.T.; Reinmuth-Selzle, K.; Leifke, A.L.; Ziegler, K.; Krevert, C.S.; Tscheuschner, G.; Lucas, K.; Weller, M.G.; Berkemeier, T.; Pöschl, U.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J. Oligomerization and Nitration of the Grass Pollen Allergen Phl p 5 by Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Peroxynitrite: Reaction Products, Kinetics, and Health Effects. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 7616. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147616

AMA Style

Backes AT, Reinmuth-Selzle K, Leifke AL, Ziegler K, Krevert CS, Tscheuschner G, Lucas K, Weller MG, Berkemeier T, Pöschl U, Fröhlich-Nowoisky J. Oligomerization and Nitration of the Grass Pollen Allergen Phl p 5 by Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Peroxynitrite: Reaction Products, Kinetics, and Health Effects. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(14):7616. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147616

Chicago/Turabian Style

Backes, Anna T., Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Anna Lena Leifke, Kira Ziegler, Carola S. Krevert, Georg Tscheuschner, Kurt Lucas, Michael G. Weller, Thomas Berkemeier, Ulrich Pöschl, and Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky. 2021. "Oligomerization and Nitration of the Grass Pollen Allergen Phl p 5 by Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Peroxynitrite: Reaction Products, Kinetics, and Health Effects" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 14: 7616. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147616

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