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The Critical Importance of Molecular Biomarkers and Imaging in the Study of Electrohypersensitivity. A Scientific Consensus International Report

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Association for Research Against Cancer (ARTAC), 57/59 rue de la Convention, 75015 Paris, France
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European Cancer and Environment Research Institute (ECERI), 1000 Brussels, Belgium
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The Science and Public Policy Institute, Washington, DC 20006, USA
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Institute for Health and the Environment, University at Albany, Albany, NY 12222, USA
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Child Health Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, South Brisbane, QLD 4101, Australia
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The Environment and Cancer Research Foundation, SE-702 17 Örebro, Sweden
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Center for Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
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Biomedical Research Center, Slovak Academy of Science, 845 05 Bratislava, Slovakia
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Trent School of the Environment, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 0G2, Canada
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Verum-Foundation for Behaviour and Environment c/o Regus Center Josephspitalstrasse 15/IV, 80331 München, Germany
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Formerly UCLA Medical Center, Department of Medicine, P.O. Box 5066, El Dorado Hills, Los Angeles, CA 95762, USA
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Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S, Canada
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Department of Biomedical Sciences, Dental Sciences and Morpho Functional Imaging, Polyclinic Hospital University, 98122 Messina, Italy
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Department of Registration & Quality Management, Medical & Regulatory Affairs Manager, MEDENA AG, 8910 Affoltern am Albis, Switzerland
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Medical Physicist, Institute of Environmental and Medical Physic, D-36466 Wiesenthal, Germany
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School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
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Oceania Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association (ORSAA), P.O. Box 152, Scarborough, QLD 4020, Australia
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Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91905, Israel
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Hadassah Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Jerusalem 91905, Israel
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Sage Associates, Montecito, Santa Barbara, CA 93108, USA
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Istituto Ramazzini, via Libia 13/A, 40138 Bologna, Italy
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Collegium Ramazzini, Castello di Bentivoglio, via Saliceto, 3, 40010 Bentivoglio, Italy
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Environmental Health Trust, P.O. Box 58, Teton Village, WY 83025, USA
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School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
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Medical Physics and Medical Engineering Department, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz P.O. Box 71348-14336, Iran
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Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz P.O. Box 71348-14336, Iran
27
A.A. Martinos Centre for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Neurology, MGH, Harvard Medical School, MGH/MIT/Harvard 149 Thirteenth Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
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Department of Hygiene, Karakalpak Medical University, Nukus 230100, Uzbekistan
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Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
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Clinical Pediatrics and Neurology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29209, USA
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Rebutting Industry Science with Knowledge (R.I.S.K.) Consultancy, Blv. Edmond Machtens 101/34, B-1080 Brussels, Belgium
32
Foundation Alborada, Finca el Olivar, Carretera M-600, Km. 32,400, 28690 Brunete, Spain
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EOHSI Clinical Center, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
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AI Institute, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
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European Microwave Association, Rue Louis de Geer 6, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Reinhard Dallinger
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147321
Received: 26 April 2021 / Revised: 23 June 2021 / Accepted: 26 June 2021 / Published: 7 July 2021
Clinical research aiming at objectively identifying and characterizing diseases via clinical observations and biological and radiological findings is a critical initial research step when establishing objective diagnostic criteria and treatments. Failure to first define such diagnostic criteria may lead research on pathogenesis and etiology to serious confounding biases and erroneous medical interpretations. This is particularly the case for electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and more particularly for the so-called “provocation tests”, which do not investigate the causal origin of EHS but rather the EHS-associated particular environmental intolerance state with hypersensitivity to man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF). However, because those tests depend on multiple EMF-associated physical and biological parameters and have been conducted in patients without having first defined EHS objectively and/or endpoints adequately, they cannot presently be considered to be valid pathogenesis research methodologies. Consequently, the negative results obtained by these tests do not preclude a role of EMF exposure as a symptomatic trigger in EHS patients. Moreover, there is no proof that EHS symptoms or EHS itself are caused by psychosomatic or nocebo effects. This international consensus report pleads for the acknowledgement of EHS as a distinct neuropathological disorder and for its inclusion in the WHO International Classification of Diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrohypersensitivity; provocation test; electromagnetic field; radiofrequency; extremely low frequency; diagnostic criteria; biomarkers; pathophysiological mechanism; imaging techniques electrohypersensitivity; provocation test; electromagnetic field; radiofrequency; extremely low frequency; diagnostic criteria; biomarkers; pathophysiological mechanism; imaging techniques
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MDPI and ACS Style

Belpomme, D.; Carlo, G.L.; Irigaray, P.; Carpenter, D.O.; Hardell, L.; Kundi, M.; Belyaev, I.; Havas, M.; Adlkofer, F.; Heuser, G.; Miller, A.B.; Caccamo, D.; De Luca, C.; von Klitzing, L.; Pall, M.L.; Bandara, P.; Stein, Y.; Sage, C.; Soffritti, M.; Davis, D.; Moskowitz, J.M.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Herbert, M.R.; Moshammer, H.; Ledoigt, G.; Turner, R.; Tweedale, A.; Muñoz-Calero, P.; Udasin, I.; Koppel, T.; Burgio, E.; Vorst, A.V. The Critical Importance of Molecular Biomarkers and Imaging in the Study of Electrohypersensitivity. A Scientific Consensus International Report. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 7321. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147321

AMA Style

Belpomme D, Carlo GL, Irigaray P, Carpenter DO, Hardell L, Kundi M, Belyaev I, Havas M, Adlkofer F, Heuser G, Miller AB, Caccamo D, De Luca C, von Klitzing L, Pall ML, Bandara P, Stein Y, Sage C, Soffritti M, Davis D, Moskowitz JM, Mortazavi SMJ, Herbert MR, Moshammer H, Ledoigt G, Turner R, Tweedale A, Muñoz-Calero P, Udasin I, Koppel T, Burgio E, Vorst AV. The Critical Importance of Molecular Biomarkers and Imaging in the Study of Electrohypersensitivity. A Scientific Consensus International Report. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(14):7321. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147321

Chicago/Turabian Style

Belpomme, Dominique, George L. Carlo, Philippe Irigaray, David O. Carpenter, Lennart Hardell, Michael Kundi, Igor Belyaev, Magda Havas, Franz Adlkofer, Gunnar Heuser, Anthony B. Miller, Daniela Caccamo, Chiara De Luca, Lebrecht von Klitzing, Martin L. Pall, Priyanka Bandara, Yael Stein, Cindy Sage, Morando Soffritti, Devra Davis, Joel M. Moskowitz, S. M.J. Mortazavi, Martha R. Herbert, Hanns Moshammer, Gerard Ledoigt, Robert Turner, Anthony Tweedale, Pilar Muñoz-Calero, Iris Udasin, Tarmo Koppel, Ernesto Burgio, and André V. Vorst 2021. "The Critical Importance of Molecular Biomarkers and Imaging in the Study of Electrohypersensitivity. A Scientific Consensus International Report" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 14: 7321. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147321

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