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Review

Possible Link between SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Parkinson’s Disease: The Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, via Fabretti, 06123 Perugia, Italy
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 7135; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22137135
Received: 20 May 2021 / Revised: 19 June 2021 / Accepted: 29 June 2021 / Published: 1 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroinflammation and Cell Death: What Is New?)
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative motor disorder characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of the midbrain, depletion of dopamine (DA), and impaired nigrostriatal pathway. The pathological hallmark of PD includes the aggregation and accumulation α-synuclein (α-SYN). Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of PD are still unknown, the activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs), mainly TLR4 and subsequent neuroinflammatory immune response, seem to play a significant role. Mounting evidence suggests that viral infection can concur with the precipitation of PD or parkinsonism. The recently identified coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of ongoing pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), responsible for 160 million cases that led to the death of more than three million individuals worldwide. Studies have reported that many patients with COVID-19 display several neurological manifestations, including acute cerebrovascular diseases, conscious disturbance, and typical motor and non-motor symptoms accompanying PD. In this review, the neurotropic potential of SARS-CoV-2 and its possible involvement in the pathogenesis of PD are discussed. Specifically, the involvement of the TLR4 signaling pathway in mediating the virus entry, as well as the massive immune and inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients is explored. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein to TLR4 and the possible interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and α-SYN as contributing factors to neuronal death are also considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; toll-like receptor 4; synuclein; neuroinflammation Parkinson’s disease; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; toll-like receptor 4; synuclein; neuroinflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Conte, C. Possible Link between SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Parkinson’s Disease: The Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 7135. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22137135

AMA Style

Conte C. Possible Link between SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Parkinson’s Disease: The Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(13):7135. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22137135

Chicago/Turabian Style

Conte, Carmela. 2021. "Possible Link between SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Parkinson’s Disease: The Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 13: 7135. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22137135

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