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Article

Ultrasonographic and Histological Correlation after Experimental Reconstruction of a Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury with Adipose Tissue

1
Research Group in Muscle Regeneration, Department of Morphological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, University of Cordoba, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
2
Department of Pathology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
3
Maimonides Institute for Biomedical Research IMIBIC, Reina Sofia University Hospital, University of Cordoba, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
4
Radiology Department, Musculoskeletal Section, Reina Sofia University Hospital, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
5
Sport Sciences Faculty, Castilla La Mancha University, 45071 Toledo, Spain
6
Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Campus de los Jerónimos, San Antonio Catholic University (UCAM), 30107 Murcia, Spain
7
Department of Pathology, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, IRYCIS, 28034 Madrid, Spain
8
Tissue of Establishment of the Center for Transfusion, Tissues and Cells, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors equally contributed to this work.
Academic Editor: Carlo Zancanaro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 6689; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136689
Received: 19 May 2021 / Revised: 16 June 2021 / Accepted: 19 June 2021 / Published: 22 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Muscular Structure, Physiology and Metabolism)
Different types of scaffolds are used to reconstruct muscle volume loss injuries. In this experimental study, we correlated ultrasound observations with histological findings in a muscle volume loss injury reconstructed with autologous adipose tissue. The outcome is compared with decellularized and porous matrix implants. Autologous adipose tissue, decellularized matrix, and a porous collagen matrix were implanted in volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries generated on the anterior tibial muscles of Wistar rats. Sixty days after implantation, ultrasound findings were compared with histological and histomorphometric analysis. The muscles with an autologous adipose tissue implant exhibited an ultrasound pattern that was quite similar to that of the regenerative control muscles. From a histological point of view, the defects had been occupied by newly formed muscle tissue with certain structural abnormalities that would explain the differences between the ultrasound patterns of the normal control muscles and the regenerated ones. While the decellularized muscle matrix implant resulted in fibrosis and an inflammatory response, the porous collagen matrix implant was replaced by regenerative muscle fibers with neurogenic atrophy and fibrosis. In both cases, the ultrasound images reflected echogenic, echotextural, and vascular changes compatible with the histological findings of failed muscle regeneration. The ultrasound analysis confirmed the histological findings observed in the VML injuries reconstructed by autologous adipose tissue implantation. Ultrasound can be a useful tool for evaluating the structure of muscles reconstructed through tissue engineering. View Full-Text
Keywords: muscle ultrasound; muscle regeneration; volumetric muscle loss; adipose tissue; muscle tissue engineering muscle ultrasound; muscle regeneration; volumetric muscle loss; adipose tissue; muscle tissue engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leiva-Cepas, F.; Benito-Ysamat, A.; Jimena, I.; Jimenez-Diaz, F.; Gil-Belmonte, M.J.; Ruz-Caracuel, I.; Villalba, R.; Peña-Amaro, J. Ultrasonographic and Histological Correlation after Experimental Reconstruction of a Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury with Adipose Tissue. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6689. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136689

AMA Style

Leiva-Cepas F, Benito-Ysamat A, Jimena I, Jimenez-Diaz F, Gil-Belmonte MJ, Ruz-Caracuel I, Villalba R, Peña-Amaro J. Ultrasonographic and Histological Correlation after Experimental Reconstruction of a Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury with Adipose Tissue. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(13):6689. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136689

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leiva-Cepas, Fernando, Alberto Benito-Ysamat, Ignacio Jimena, Fernando Jimenez-Diaz, Maria J. Gil-Belmonte, Ignacio Ruz-Caracuel, Rafael Villalba, and Jose Peña-Amaro. 2021. "Ultrasonographic and Histological Correlation after Experimental Reconstruction of a Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury with Adipose Tissue" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 13: 6689. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136689

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