Next Article in Journal
Transcriptomic and Metabolic Profiling of High-Temperature Treated Storage Roots Reveals the Mechanism of Saccharification in Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)
Next Article in Special Issue
Invertebrate Models in Innate Immunity and Tissue Remodeling Research
Previous Article in Journal
Pyridazino-1,3a,6a-Triazapentalenes as Versatile Fluorescent Probes: Impact of Their Post-Functionalization and Application for Cellular Imaging
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mesoglea Extracellular Matrix Reorganization during Regenerative Process in Anemonia viridis (Forskål, 1775)
 
 
Article

The Diverse Transformer (Trf) Protein Family in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus Acts through a Collaboration between Cellular and Humoral Immune Effector Arms

1
Department of Molecular Biology, Ariel University, Science Park, Ariel 40700, Israel
2
The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Annalisa Grimaldi, Maria Giovanna Parisi and Nicolò Baranzini
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 6639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136639
Received: 26 May 2021 / Revised: 15 June 2021 / Accepted: 15 June 2021 / Published: 22 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invertebrate Models in Innate Immunity and Tissue Remodeling Research)
Sea urchins are long-living marine invertebrates with a complex innate immune system, which includes expanded families of immune receptors. A central immune gene family in sea urchins encodes the Transformer (Trf) proteins. The Trf family has been studied mainly in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Here, we explore this protein family in the Mediterranean Sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The PlTrf genes and predicted proteins are highly diverse and show a typical Trf size range and structure. Coelomocytes and cell-free coelomic fluid from P. lividus contain different PlTrf protein repertoires with a shared subset, that bind specifically to E. coli. Using FACS, we identified five different P. lividus coelomocyte sub-populations with cell surface PlTrf protein expression. The relative abundance of the PlTrf-positive cells increases sharply following immune challenge with E. coli, but not following challenge with LPS or the sea urchin pathogen, Vibrio penaeicida. Phagocytosis of E. coli by P. lividus phagocytes is mediated through the cell-free coelomic fluid and is inhibited by blocking PlTrf activity with anti-SpTrf antibodies. Together, our results suggest a collaboration between cellular and humoral PlTrf-mediated effector arms in the P. lividus specific immune response to pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: Paracentrotus lividus; Transformer; Trf; 185/333; invertebrate immunity; phagocytosis; model organism Paracentrotus lividus; Transformer; Trf; 185/333; invertebrate immunity; phagocytosis; model organism
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Yakovenko, I.; Donnyo, A.; Ioscovich, O.; Rosental, B.; Oren, M. The Diverse Transformer (Trf) Protein Family in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus Acts through a Collaboration between Cellular and Humoral Immune Effector Arms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6639. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136639

AMA Style

Yakovenko I, Donnyo A, Ioscovich O, Rosental B, Oren M. The Diverse Transformer (Trf) Protein Family in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus Acts through a Collaboration between Cellular and Humoral Immune Effector Arms. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(13):6639. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136639

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yakovenko, Iryna, Asaf Donnyo, Or Ioscovich, Benyamin Rosental, and Matan Oren. 2021. "The Diverse Transformer (Trf) Protein Family in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus Acts through a Collaboration between Cellular and Humoral Immune Effector Arms" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 13: 6639. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136639

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop