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Presence of β-Lactamase-producing Enterobacterales and Salmonella Isolates in Marine Mammals

Institute of Microbiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1210 Vienna, Austria
Marine Mammal Care Center, Los Angeles, CA 90731, USA
Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), National Reference Centre for Salmonella, 8010 Graz, Austria
Department of Functional Food Products Development, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland
Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University Clinic for Swine, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1210 Vienna, Austria
Centre for Infection Medicine, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Microbiology and Epizootics, Freie Universität Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany
Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), 07745 Jena, Germany
InfectoGnostics Research Campus, 07743 Jena, Germany
Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Technical University of Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany
Institute of Physical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany
Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1160 Vienna, Austria
Health Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York City, NY 10460, USA
College of Veterinary Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766-1854, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Baltasar Mayo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5905;
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 27 May 2021 / Accepted: 28 May 2021 / Published: 31 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: Appearance, Evolution, and Spread)
Marine mammals have been described as sentinels of the health of marine ecosystems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate (i) the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC-producing Enterobacterales, which comprise several bacterial families important to the healthcare sector, as well as (ii) the presence of Salmonella in these coastal animals. The antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes, as well as biocide susceptibility of Enterobacterales isolated from stranded marine mammals, were determined prior to their rehabilitation. All E. coli isolates (n = 27) were screened for virulence genes via DNA-based microarray, and twelve selected E. coli isolates were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing. Seventy-one percent of the Enterobacterales isolates exhibited a multidrug-resistant (MDR) pheno- and genotype. The gene blaCMY (n = 51) was the predominant β-lactamase gene. In addition, blaTEM-1 (n = 38), blaSHV-33 (n = 8), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 7), blaOXA-1 (n = 7), blaSHV-11 (n = 3), and blaDHA-1 (n = 2) were detected. The most prevalent non-β-lactamase genes were sul2 (n = 38), strA (n = 34), strB (n = 34), and tet(A) (n = 34). Escherichia coli isolates belonging to the pandemic sequence types (STs) ST38, ST167, and ST648 were identified. Among Salmonella isolates (n = 18), S. Havana was the most prevalent serotype. The present study revealed a high prevalence of MDR bacteria and the presence of pandemic high-risk clones, both of which are indicators of anthropogenic antimicrobial pollution, in marine mammals. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; ESBL/AmpC; wildlife; E. coli; K. pneumoniae antimicrobial resistance; ESBL/AmpC; wildlife; E. coli; K. pneumoniae
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grünzweil, O.M.; Palmer, L.; Cabal, A.; Szostak, M.P.; Ruppitsch, W.; Kornschober, C.; Korus, M.; Misic, D.; Bernreiter-Hofer, T.; Korath, A.D.J.; Feßler, A.T.; Allerberger, F.; Schwarz, S.; Spergser, J.; Müller, E.; Braun, S.D.; Monecke, S.; Ehricht, R.; Walzer, C.; Smodlaka, H.; Loncaric, I. Presence of β-Lactamase-producing Enterobacterales and Salmonella Isolates in Marine Mammals. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5905.

AMA Style

Grünzweil OM, Palmer L, Cabal A, Szostak MP, Ruppitsch W, Kornschober C, Korus M, Misic D, Bernreiter-Hofer T, Korath ADJ, Feßler AT, Allerberger F, Schwarz S, Spergser J, Müller E, Braun SD, Monecke S, Ehricht R, Walzer C, Smodlaka H, Loncaric I. Presence of β-Lactamase-producing Enterobacterales and Salmonella Isolates in Marine Mammals. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(11):5905.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grünzweil, Olivia M., Lauren Palmer, Adriana Cabal, Michael P. Szostak, Werner Ruppitsch, Christian Kornschober, Maciej Korus, Dusan Misic, Tanja Bernreiter-Hofer, Anna D. J. Korath, Andrea T. Feßler, Franz Allerberger, Stefan Schwarz, Joachim Spergser, Elke Müller, Sascha D. Braun, Stefan Monecke, Ralf Ehricht, Chris Walzer, Hrvoje Smodlaka, and Igor Loncaric. 2021. "Presence of β-Lactamase-producing Enterobacterales and Salmonella Isolates in Marine Mammals" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 11: 5905.

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