Next Article in Journal
Genome-Wide Role of HSF1 in Transcriptional Regulation of Desiccation Tolerance in the Anhydrobiotic Cell Line, Pv11
Next Article in Special Issue
Overexpression of miR-124 in Motor Neurons Plays a Key Role in ALS Pathological Processes
Previous Article in Journal
Physical Exercise-Induced Myokines in Neurodegenerative Diseases
 
 
Review

Mechanisms of Nausea and Vomiting: Current Knowledge and Recent Advances in Intracellular Emetic Signaling Systems

1
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Western University of Health Sciences, 309 East Second Street, Pomona, CA 91766, USA
2
School of Medicine, Universidad Iberoamericana, Av. Francia 129, Santo Domingo 10203, Dominican Republic
3
Graduate College of Biomedical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Henrique Girao
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5797; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115797
Received: 6 April 2021 / Revised: 20 May 2021 / Accepted: 21 May 2021 / Published: 28 May 2021
Nausea and vomiting are common gastrointestinal complaints that can be triggered by diverse emetic stimuli through central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Both nausea and vomiting are considered as defense mechanisms when threatening toxins/drugs/bacteria/viruses/fungi enter the body either via the enteral (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract) or parenteral routes, including the blood, skin, and respiratory systems. While vomiting is the act of forceful removal of gastrointestinal contents, nausea is believed to be a subjective sensation that is more difficult to study in nonhuman species. In this review, the authors discuss the anatomical structures, neurotransmitters/mediators, and corresponding receptors, as well as intracellular emetic signaling pathways involved in the processes of nausea and vomiting in diverse animal models as well as humans. While blockade of emetic receptors in the prevention of vomiting is fairly well understood, the potential of new classes of antiemetics altering postreceptor signal transduction mechanisms is currently evolving, which is also reviewed. Finally, future directions within the field will be discussed in terms of important questions that remain to be resolved and advances in technology that may help provide potential answers. View Full-Text
Keywords: nausea; vomiting; emesis; G-protein coupled receptors; signaling pathway; Ca2+; brainstem; the gastrointestinal tract nausea; vomiting; emesis; G-protein coupled receptors; signaling pathway; Ca2+; brainstem; the gastrointestinal tract
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhong, W.; Shahbaz, O.; Teskey, G.; Beever, A.; Kachour, N.; Venketaraman, V.; Darmani, N.A. Mechanisms of Nausea and Vomiting: Current Knowledge and Recent Advances in Intracellular Emetic Signaling Systems. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5797. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115797

AMA Style

Zhong W, Shahbaz O, Teskey G, Beever A, Kachour N, Venketaraman V, Darmani NA. Mechanisms of Nausea and Vomiting: Current Knowledge and Recent Advances in Intracellular Emetic Signaling Systems. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(11):5797. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115797

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhong, Weixia, Omar Shahbaz, Garrett Teskey, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Vishwanath Venketaraman, and Nissar A. Darmani. 2021. "Mechanisms of Nausea and Vomiting: Current Knowledge and Recent Advances in Intracellular Emetic Signaling Systems" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 11: 5797. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115797

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop