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Review

G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs): Signaling Pathways, Characterization, and Functions in Insect Physiology and Toxicology

1
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
2
Department of Biology Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandro Cannavo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(10), 5260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105260
Received: 1 March 2021 / Revised: 12 May 2021 / Accepted: 13 May 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known to play central roles in the physiology of many organisms. Members of this seven α-helical transmembrane protein family transduce the extracellular signals and regulate intracellular second messengers through coupling to heterotrimeric G-proteins, adenylate cyclase, cAMPs, and protein kinases. As a result of the critical function of GPCRs in cell physiology and biochemistry, they not only play important roles in cell biology and the medicines used to treat a wide range of human diseases but also in insects’ physiological functions. Recent studies have revealed the expression and function of GPCRs in insecticide resistance, improving our understanding of the molecular complexes governing the development of insecticide resistance. This article focuses on the review of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways in insect physiology, including insects’ reproduction, growth and development, stress responses, feeding, behaviors, and other physiological processes. Hormones and polypeptides that are involved in insect GPCR regulatory pathways are reviewed. The review also gives a brief introduction of GPCR pathways in organisms in general. At the end of the review, it provides the recent studies on the function of GPCRs in the development of insecticide resistance, focusing in particular on our current knowledge of the expression and function of GPCRs and their downstream regulation pathways and their roles in insecticide resistance and the regulation of resistance P450 gene expression. The latest insights into the exciting technological advances and new techniques for gene expression and functional characterization of the GPCRs in insects are provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: G-protein coupled receptor regulation pathway; GPCR downstream effectors; functional characterization; insect physiology; insecticide resistance; cell lines G-protein coupled receptor regulation pathway; GPCR downstream effectors; functional characterization; insect physiology; insecticide resistance; cell lines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, N.; Wang, Y.; Li, T.; Feng, X. G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs): Signaling Pathways, Characterization, and Functions in Insect Physiology and Toxicology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5260. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105260

AMA Style

Liu N, Wang Y, Li T, Feng X. G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs): Signaling Pathways, Characterization, and Functions in Insect Physiology and Toxicology. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(10):5260. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105260

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Nannan, Yifan Wang, Ting Li, and Xuechun Feng. 2021. "G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs): Signaling Pathways, Characterization, and Functions in Insect Physiology and Toxicology" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 10: 5260. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105260

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