Next Article in Journal
Involvement of cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase in the Nucleus Accumbens in Cocaine Versus Social Interaction Reward
Previous Article in Journal
Pick’s Tau Fibril Shows Multiple Distinct PET Probe Binding Sites: Insights from Computational Modelling
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mechanisms of EGFR Resistance in Glioblastoma
Review

Molecular Mechanisms of Treatment Resistance in Glioblastoma

Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Unit 431, Houston, TX 77030, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010351
Received: 21 December 2020 / Revised: 25 December 2020 / Accepted: 28 December 2020 / Published: 31 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Hallmarks of Malignant Brain Tumors)
Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults and is almost invariably fatal. Despite our growing understanding of the various mechanisms underlying treatment failure, the standard-of-care therapy has not changed over the last two decades, signifying a great unmet need. The challenges of treating glioblastoma are many and include inadequate drug or agent delivery across the blood–brain barrier, abundant intra- and intertumoral heterogeneity, redundant signaling pathways, and an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Here, we review the innate and adaptive molecular mechanisms underlying glioblastoma’s treatment resistance, emphasizing the intrinsic challenges therapeutic interventions must overcome—namely, the blood–brain barrier, tumoral heterogeneity, and microenvironment—and the mechanisms of resistance to conventional treatments, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: glioblastoma; heterogeneity; chemoresistance; radioresistance; immunotherapy; targeted therapy glioblastoma; heterogeneity; chemoresistance; radioresistance; immunotherapy; targeted therapy
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ou, A.; Yung, W.K.A.; Majd, N. Molecular Mechanisms of Treatment Resistance in Glioblastoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 351. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010351

AMA Style

Ou A, Yung WKA, Majd N. Molecular Mechanisms of Treatment Resistance in Glioblastoma. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(1):351. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010351

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ou, Alexander, W. K.A. Yung, and Nazanin Majd. 2021. "Molecular Mechanisms of Treatment Resistance in Glioblastoma" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 1: 351. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010351

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop