According to the recent data, nitric oxide (NO) is a chemical messenger that mediates functions such as vasodilation and neurotransmission, as well as displaying antimicrobial and antitumoral activities. NO has been implicated in the neurotoxicity associated with stroke and neurodegenerative diseases; neural regulation of smooth muscle, including peristalsis; and penile erections. We searched for full-text English publications from the past 15 years in Pubmed and SNPedia databases using keywords and combined word searches (nitric oxide, single nucleotide variants, single nucleotide polymorphisms, genes). In addition, earlier publications of historical interest were included in the review. In our review, we have summarized information regarding all NOS1
, and NOS1AP
single nucleotide variants (SNVs) involved in the development of mental disorders and neurological diseases/conditions. The results of the studies we have discussed in this review are contradictory, which might be due to different designs of the studies, small sample sizes in some of them, and different social and geographical characteristics. However, the contribution of genetic and environmental factors has been understudied, which makes this issue increasingly important for researchers as the understanding of these mechanisms can support a search for new approaches to pathogenetic and disease-modifying treatment.
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