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Current Status and Application of Metformin for Prostate Cancer: A Comprehensive Review

Department of Urology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 06229, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(22), 8540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228540
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 31 October 2020 / Accepted: 9 November 2020 / Published: 12 November 2020
Metformin, an oral biguanide used for first-line treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, has attracted attention for its anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects in several solid tumors, including prostate cancer (PCa). Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity and protein synthesis, induction of apoptosis and autophagy by p53 and p21, and decreased blood insulin level have been suggested as direct anti-cancer mechanisms of metformin. Research has shown that PCa development and progression are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Therefore, reduction in the risk of PCa and improvement in survival in metformin users may be the results of the direct anti-cancer mechanisms of the drug or the secondary effects from improvement of metabolic syndrome. In contrast, some research has suggested that there is no association between metformin use and PCa incidence or survival. In this comprehensive review, we summarize updated evidence on the relationship between metformin use and oncological effects in patients with PCa. We also highlight ongoing clinical trials evaluating metformin as an adjuvant therapy in novel drug combinations in various disease settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: metformin; prostatic neoplasm metformin; prostatic neoplasm
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahn, H.K.; Lee, Y.H.; Koo, K.C. Current Status and Application of Metformin for Prostate Cancer: A Comprehensive Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 8540. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228540

AMA Style

Ahn HK, Lee YH, Koo KC. Current Status and Application of Metformin for Prostate Cancer: A Comprehensive Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(22):8540. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228540

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahn, Hyun K., Young H. Lee, and Kyo C. Koo. 2020. "Current Status and Application of Metformin for Prostate Cancer: A Comprehensive Review" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 22: 8540. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228540

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