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Article

Phenotypic and Functional Characteristics of Exosomes Derived from Irradiated Mouse Organs and Their Role in the Mechanisms Driving Non-Targeted Effects

1
Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK
2
Laboratory of Biomedical Technologies, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), 00123 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Radiation Physics, Guglielmo Marconi University, 00193 Rome, Italy
4
Centre for Radiation and Environmental Science, FOCAS Research Institute, Technological University Dublin, D08 NF82 Dublin, Ireland
5
Institute of Radiation Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, 85764 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218389
Received: 29 September 2020 / Revised: 4 November 2020 / Accepted: 5 November 2020 / Published: 9 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles: Biology and Potentials in Cancer Therapeutics)
Molecular communication between irradiated and unirradiated neighbouring cells initiates radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) and out-of-field (abscopal) effects which are both an example of the non-targeted effects (NTE) of ionising radiation (IR). Exosomes are small membrane vesicles of endosomal origin and newly identified mediators of NTE. Although exosome-mediated changes are well documented in radiation therapy and oncology, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the role of exosomes derived from inside and outside the radiation field in the early and delayed induction of NTE following IR. Therefore, here we investigated the changes in exosome profile and the role of exosomes as possible molecular signalling mediators of radiation damage. Exosomes derived from organs of whole body irradiated (WBI) or partial body irradiated (PBI) mice after 24 h and 15 days post-irradiation were transferred to recipient mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells and changes in cellular viability, DNA damage and calcium, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide signalling were evaluated compared to that of MEF cells treated with exosomes derived from unirradiated mice. Taken together, our results show that whole and partial-body irradiation increases the number of exosomes, instigating changes in exosome-treated MEF cells, depending on the source organ and time after exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; ionising radiation; non-targeted effects; signalling exosomes; ionising radiation; non-targeted effects; signalling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tuncay Cagatay, S.; Mayah, A.; Mancuso, M.; Giardullo, P.; Pazzaglia, S.; Saran, A.; Daniel, A.; Traynor, D.; Meade, A.D.; Lyng, F.; Tapio, S.; Kadhim, M. Phenotypic and Functional Characteristics of Exosomes Derived from Irradiated Mouse Organs and Their Role in the Mechanisms Driving Non-Targeted Effects. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 8389. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218389

AMA Style

Tuncay Cagatay S, Mayah A, Mancuso M, Giardullo P, Pazzaglia S, Saran A, Daniel A, Traynor D, Meade AD, Lyng F, Tapio S, Kadhim M. Phenotypic and Functional Characteristics of Exosomes Derived from Irradiated Mouse Organs and Their Role in the Mechanisms Driving Non-Targeted Effects. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(21):8389. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218389

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tuncay Cagatay, Seda, Ammar Mayah, Mariateresa Mancuso, Paola Giardullo, Simonetta Pazzaglia, Anna Saran, Amuthachelvi Daniel, Damien Traynor, Aidan D. Meade, Fiona Lyng, Soile Tapio, and Munira Kadhim. 2020. "Phenotypic and Functional Characteristics of Exosomes Derived from Irradiated Mouse Organs and Their Role in the Mechanisms Driving Non-Targeted Effects" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 21: 8389. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218389

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