Regarding the unfavourable changes in agroecosystems resulting from the excessive application of mineral fertilizers, biopreparations containing live microorganisms are gaining increasing attention. We assumed that the application of phosphorus mineral fertilizer enriched with strains of beneficial microorganisms contribute to favourable changes in enzymatic activity and in the genetic and functional diversity of microbial populations inhabiting degraded soils. Therefore, in field experiments conditions, the effects of phosphorus fertilizer enriched with bacterial strains on the status of soil microbiome in two chemically degraded soil types (Brunic Arenosol—BA and Abruptic Luvisol—AL) were investigated. The field experiments included treatments with an optimal dose of phosphorus fertilizer (without microorganisms—FC), optimal dose of phosphorus fertilizer enriched with microorganisms including Paenibacillus polymyxa
strain CHT114AB, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
strain AF75BB and Bacillus
sp. strain CZP4/4 (FA100) and a dose of phosphorus fertilizer reduced by 40% and enriched with the above-mentioned bacteria (FA60). The analyzes performed included: the determination of the activity of the soil enzymes (protease, urease, acid phosphomonoesterase, β-glucosidase), the assessment of the functional diversity of microorganisms with the application of BIOLOGTM
plates and the characterization of the genetic diversity of bacteria, archaea and fungi with multiplex terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and next generation sequencing. The obtained results indicated that the application of phosphorus fertilizer enriched with microorganisms improved enzymatic activity, and the genetic and functional diversity of the soil microbial communities, however these effects were dependent on the soil type.
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