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Review

Extracellular Vesicles as Innovative Tool for Diagnosis, Regeneration and Protection against Neurological Damage

1
Center for Laser Microscopy, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
2
Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy, INEP, University of Belgrade, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia
3
Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
4
Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Disease Networks Research Unit, InfoTech Oulu, Kvantum Institute, University of Oulu, Borealis Biobank of Northern Finland, Univ. Oulu Hospital, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
5
Laboratory for Stem Cells, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Laboratory of Regenerative Neurobiology, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden
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Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Centre for Innovative Medicine, LT-01001 Vilnius, Lithuania
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Laboratory of Biosurgical Research (Alain Carpentier Foundation), Pompidu Hospital, University Paris Descartes, 75015 Paris, France
9
Department of Molecular Science and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, 30100 Venice, Italy
10
Department of Neurosciences, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy
11
Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186859
Received: 26 August 2020 / Revised: 11 September 2020 / Accepted: 15 September 2020 / Published: 18 September 2020
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently attracted a great deal of interest as they may represent a new biosignaling paradigm. According to the mode of biogenesis, size and composition, two broad categories of EVs have been described, exosomes and microvesicles. EVs have been shown to carry cargoes of signaling proteins, RNA species, DNA and lipids. Once released, their content is selectively taken up by near or distant target cells, influencing their behavior. Exosomes are involved in cell–cell communication in a wide range of embryonic developmental processes and in fetal–maternal communication. In the present review, an outline of the role of EVs in neural development, regeneration and diseases is presented. EVs can act as regulators of normal homeostasis, but they can also promote either neuroinflammation/degeneration or tissue repair in pathological conditions, depending on their content. Since EV molecular cargo constitutes a representation of the origin cell status, EVs can be exploited in the diagnosis of several diseases. Due to their capability to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), EVs not only have been suggested for the diagnosis of central nervous system disorders by means of minimally invasive procedures, i.e., “liquid biopsies”, but they are also considered attractive tools for targeted drug delivery across the BBB. From the therapeutic perspective, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent one of the most promising sources of EVs. In particular, the neuroprotective properties of MSCs derived from the dental pulp are here discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; microvesicles; drug delivery; neurological disorders; theragnostic blood–brain barrier; stem cells; neuronal development; miRNA exosomes; microvesicles; drug delivery; neurological disorders; theragnostic blood–brain barrier; stem cells; neuronal development; miRNA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Andjus, P.; Kosanović, M.; Milićević, K.; Gautam, M.; Vainio, S.J.; Jagečić, D.; Kozlova, E.N.; Pivoriūnas, A.; Chachques, J.-C.; Sakaj, M.; Brunello, G.; Mitrecic, D.; Zavan, B. Extracellular Vesicles as Innovative Tool for Diagnosis, Regeneration and Protection against Neurological Damage. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6859. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186859

AMA Style

Andjus P, Kosanović M, Milićević K, Gautam M, Vainio SJ, Jagečić D, Kozlova EN, Pivoriūnas A, Chachques J-C, Sakaj M, Brunello G, Mitrecic D, Zavan B. Extracellular Vesicles as Innovative Tool for Diagnosis, Regeneration and Protection against Neurological Damage. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(18):6859. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186859

Chicago/Turabian Style

Andjus, Pavle, Maja Kosanović, Katarina Milićević, Mukesh Gautam, Seppo J. Vainio, Denis Jagečić, Elena N. Kozlova, Augustas Pivoriūnas, Juan-Carlos Chachques, Mirena Sakaj, Giulia Brunello, Dinko Mitrecic, and Barbara Zavan. 2020. "Extracellular Vesicles as Innovative Tool for Diagnosis, Regeneration and Protection against Neurological Damage" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 18: 6859. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186859

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