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Review

Alternative and Experimental Therapies of Mycobacterium abscessus Infections

by 1 and 2,*
1
Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, The Ruth Rappaport Children’s Hospital, Rambam Health-Care Campus, Haifa 31096, Israel
2
Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186793
Received: 11 August 2020 / Revised: 13 September 2020 / Accepted: 14 September 2020 / Published: 16 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Drugs and Novel Strategies against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria)
Mycobacterium abscessus is a non-tuberculous mycobacterium notoriously known for causing severe, chronic infections. Treatment of these infections is challenging due to either intrinsic or acquired resistance of M. abscessus to multiple antibiotics. Despite prolonged poly-antimicrobial therapy, treatment of M. abscessus infections often fails, leading to progressive morbidity and eventual mortality. Great research efforts are invested in finding new therapeutic options for M. abscessus. Clofazimine and rifabutin are known anti-mycobacterial antibiotics, repurposed for use against M. abscessus. Novel antimicrobials active against M. abscessus include delamanid, pretomanid and PIPD1 and the recently approved beta-lactamase inhibitors avibactam, relebactam and vaborbactam. Previously unused antimicrobial combinations, e.g. vancomycin–clarithromycin and dual beta-lactam therapy, have been shown to have synergistic effect against M. abscessus in experimental models, suggesting their possible use in multiple-drug regimens. Finally, engineered phage therapy has been reported to be clinically successful in a severe case of disseminated M. abscessus infection. While many of these experimental therapeutics have shown activity against M. abscessus in vitro, as well as in intracellular and/or animal models, most have little if any evidence of effect in human infections. Clinical studies of M. abscesssus treatments are needed to reliably determine the value of their incorporation in therapeutic regimens. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mycobacterium abscessus; drug treatment; experimental therapy; review Mycobacterium abscessus; drug treatment; experimental therapy; review
MDPI and ACS Style

Meir, M.; Barkan, D. Alternative and Experimental Therapies of Mycobacterium abscessus Infections. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6793. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186793

AMA Style

Meir M, Barkan D. Alternative and Experimental Therapies of Mycobacterium abscessus Infections. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(18):6793. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186793

Chicago/Turabian Style

Meir, Michal; Barkan, Daniel. 2020. "Alternative and Experimental Therapies of Mycobacterium abscessus Infections" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 18: 6793. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186793

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