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The Role of Tocotrienol in Preventing Male Osteoporosis—A Review of Current Evidence
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The Molecular Mechanism of Vitamin E as a Bone-Protecting Agent: A Review on Current Evidence

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1453;
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osteoporosis: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapies)
Bone remodelling is a tightly-coordinated and lifelong process of replacing old damaged bone with newly-synthesized healthy bone. In the bone remodelling cycle, bone resorption is coupled with bone formation to maintain the bone volume and microarchitecture. This process is a result of communication between bone cells (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes) with paracrine and endocrine regulators, such as cytokines, reactive oxygen species, growth factors, and hormones. The essential signalling pathways responsible for osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation include the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG), Wnt/β-catenin, and oxidative stress signalling. The imbalance between bone formation and degradation, in favour of resorption, leads to the occurrence of osteoporosis. Intriguingly, vitamin E has been extensively reported for its anti-osteoporotic properties using various male and female animal models. Thus, understanding the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to the skeletal action of vitamin E is vital to promote its use as a potential bone-protecting agent. This review aims to summarize the current evidence elucidating the molecular actions of vitamin E in regulating the bone remodelling cycle. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; osteoblast; osteoclast; oxidative stress; tocopherol; tocotrienol inflammation; osteoblast; osteoclast; oxidative stress; tocopherol; tocotrienol
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Wong, S.K.; Mohamad, N.-V.; Ibrahim, N.‘.; Chin, K.-Y.; Shuid, A.N.; Ima-Nirwana, S. The Molecular Mechanism of Vitamin E as a Bone-Protecting Agent: A Review on Current Evidence. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1453.

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