Periodontal Disease: A Risk Factor for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease
Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Federico II University of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy
Center for Translational Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Federico II University of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy
Institute of Dentistry, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119146 Moscow, Russia
Istituti Clinici Scientifici-ICS Maugeri S.p.A., 82037 Telese Terme (BN), Italy
Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Materials, School of Dental Medicine, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061414
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Inflammation in Degenerative Cardiovascular Conditions)
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, initiated by the presence of a bacterial biofilm, called dental plaque, which affects both the periodontal ligaments and bone surrounding teeth. In the last decades, several lines of evidence have supported the existence of a relationship between periodontitis and systemic health. For instance, as periodontitis acts within the same chronic inflammatory model seen in cardiovascular disease (CVD), or other disorders, such as diabetes, several studies have suggested the existence of a bi-directional link between periodontal health and these pathologies. For instance, people with diabetes are more susceptible to infections and are more likely to suffer from periodontitis than people without this syndrome. Analogously, it is now evident that cardiac disorders are worsened by periodontitis, both experimentally and in humans. For all these reasons, it is very plausible that preventing periodontitis has an impact on the onset or progression of CVD and diabetes. On these grounds, in this review, we have provided an updated account on the current knowledge concerning periodontal disease and the adverse effects exerted on the cardiovascular system health and diabetes, informing readers on the most recent preclinical studies and epidemiological evidence.