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Open AccessArticle

Abscisic Acid Regulates the 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA Reductase Gene Promoter and Ginsenoside Production in Panax quinquefolium Hairy Root Cultures

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Medical University of Lodz, Muszyńskiego l, 90-151 Lodz, Poland
2
Laboratory of Molecular Diagnostics and Pharmacogenomics, Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, Interfaculty Cathedral of Laboratory and Molecular Diagnostics, Medical University of Lodz, Muszyńskiego 1, 90-151 Lodz, Poland
3
Department of Allergology and Respiratory Rehabilitation, 2nd Chair of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Lodz, Żeligowskiego 7/9, 90-725, Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061310
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
Panax quinquefolium hairy root cultures synthesize triterpenoid saponins named ginsenosides, that have multidirectional pharmacological activity. The first rate-limiting enzyme in the process of their biosynthesis is 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR). In this study, a 741 bp fragment of the P. quinquefolium HMGR gene (PqHMGR), consisting of a proximal promoter, 5′UTR (5′ untranslated region) and 5′CDS (coding DNA sequence) was isolated. In silico analysis of an isolated fragment indicated a lack of tandem repeats, miRNA binding sites, and CpG/CpNpG elements. However, the proximal promoter contained potential cis-elements involved in the response to light, salicylic, and abscisic acid (ABA) that was represented by the motif ABRE (TACGTG). The functional significance of ABA on P. quinquefolium HMGR gene expression was evaluated, carrying out quantitative RT-PCR experiments at different ABA concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg·L−1). Additionally, the effect of abscisic acid and its time exposure on biomass and ginsenoside level in Panax quinquefolium hairy root was examined. The saponin content was determined using HPLC. The 28 day elicitation period with 1 mg·L−1 ABA was the most efficient for Rg2 and Re (17.38 and 1.83 times increase, respectively) accumulation; however, the protopanaxadiol derivative content decreased in these conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase gene promoter; ginsenosides; hairy roots; Panax quinquefolium 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase gene promoter; ginsenosides; hairy roots; Panax quinquefolium
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Kochan, E.; Balcerczak, E.; Szymczyk, P.; Sienkiewicz, M.; Zielińska-Bliźniewska, H.; Szymańska, G. Abscisic Acid Regulates the 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA Reductase Gene Promoter and Ginsenoside Production in Panax quinquefolium Hairy Root Cultures. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1310.

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