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Open AccessReview

Osmotic Demyelination: From an Oligodendrocyte to an Astrocyte Perspective

1
URPhyM—NARILIS, Université de Namur, 5000 Namur, Belgium
2
Laboratory of Glia Biology (VIB-KU Leuven Center for Brain & Disease Research), Department of Neuroscience, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
3
Department of Anatomical Sciences, St George’s University School of Medicine, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051124
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a disorder of the central myelin that is often associated with a precipitous rise of serum sodium. Remarkably, while the myelin and oligodendrocytes of specific brain areas degenerate during the disease, neighboring neurons and axons appear unspoiled, and neuroinflammation appears only once demyelination is well established. In addition to blood‒brain barrier breakdown and microglia activation, astrocyte death is among one of the earliest events during ODS pathology. This review will focus on various aspects of biochemical, molecular and cellular aspects of oligodendrocyte and astrocyte changes in ODS-susceptible brain regions, with an emphasis on the crosstalk between those two glial cells. Emerging evidence pointing to the initiating role of astrocytes in region-specific degeneration are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: astrocytes; oligodendrocytes; osmotic demyelination syndrome; myelinolysis; myelin loss astrocytes; oligodendrocytes; osmotic demyelination syndrome; myelinolysis; myelin loss
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Nicaise, C.; Marneffe, C.; Bouchat, J.; Gilloteaux, J. Osmotic Demyelination: From an Oligodendrocyte to an Astrocyte Perspective. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1124.

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