Prostate cancer is the one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among men over the age of 50. Several lines of evidence support the observation that polyphenols have preventive and therapeutic effects in prostate cancer. Moreover, prostate cancer is ideal for chemoprevention due to its long latency. We propose here an equilibrated lifestyle with a diet rich in polyphenols as prophylactic attempts to slow down the progression of localized prostate cancer or prevent the occurrence of the disease. In this review, we will first summarize the molecular mechanisms of polyphenols in prostate cancer with a focus on the antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects, androgen receptors (AR), key molecules involved in AR signaling and their transactivation pathways, cell cycle, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, genetic aspects, and epigenetic mechanisms. The relevance of the molecular mechanisms is discussed in light of current bioavailability data regarding the activity of polyphenols in prostate cancer. We also highlight strategies for improving the bioavailability of polyphenols. We hope that this review will lead to further research regarding the bioavailability and the role of polyphenols in prostate cancer prevention and treatment.
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