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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051062

Molecular Mechanisms and Bioavailability of Polyphenols in Prostate Cancer

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Phytotherapy, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 020021 Bucharest, Romania
2
Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
3
Department of Biophysics, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 020021 Bucharest, Romania
4
MTA-DE Cell Biology and Signaling Research Group, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols: Nutrition, Physiology, Metabolism and Health Benefits)
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Abstract

Prostate cancer is the one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among men over the age of 50. Several lines of evidence support the observation that polyphenols have preventive and therapeutic effects in prostate cancer. Moreover, prostate cancer is ideal for chemoprevention due to its long latency. We propose here an equilibrated lifestyle with a diet rich in polyphenols as prophylactic attempts to slow down the progression of localized prostate cancer or prevent the occurrence of the disease. In this review, we will first summarize the molecular mechanisms of polyphenols in prostate cancer with a focus on the antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects, androgen receptors (AR), key molecules involved in AR signaling and their transactivation pathways, cell cycle, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, genetic aspects, and epigenetic mechanisms. The relevance of the molecular mechanisms is discussed in light of current bioavailability data regarding the activity of polyphenols in prostate cancer. We also highlight strategies for improving the bioavailability of polyphenols. We hope that this review will lead to further research regarding the bioavailability and the role of polyphenols in prostate cancer prevention and treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary polyphenols; bioavailability; molecular mechanisms; prostate cancer dietary polyphenols; bioavailability; molecular mechanisms; prostate cancer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Costea, T.; Nagy, P.; Ganea, C.; Szöllősi, J.; Mocanu, M.-M. Molecular Mechanisms and Bioavailability of Polyphenols in Prostate Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1062.

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