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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030759

Insulin and Insulin Receptors in Adipose Tissue Development

Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70124 Bari, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insulin and Insulin Receptor in Diseases)
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Abstract

Insulin is a major endocrine hormone also involved in the regulation of energy and lipid metabolism via the activation of an intracellular signaling cascade involving the insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT). Specifically, insulin regulates several aspects of the development and function of adipose tissue and stimulates the differentiation program of adipose cells. Insulin can activate its responses in adipose tissue through two INSR splicing variants: INSR-A, which is predominantly expressed in mesenchymal and less-differentiated cells and mainly linked to cell proliferation, and INSR-B, which is more expressed in terminally differentiated cells and coupled to metabolic effects. Recent findings have revealed that different distributions of INSR and an altered INSR-A:INSR-B ratio may contribute to metabolic abnormalities during the onset of insulin resistance and the progression to type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss the role of insulin and the INSR in the development and endocrine activity of adipose tissue and the pharmacological implications for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: insulin receptor; adipose tissue; adipocyte; receptor isoform insulin receptor; adipose tissue; adipocyte; receptor isoform
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Cignarelli, A.; Genchi, V.A.; Perrini, S.; Natalicchio, A.; Laviola, L.; Giorgino, F. Insulin and Insulin Receptors in Adipose Tissue Development. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 759.

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