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Open AccessArticle

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of A Polyphenolic Extract from Arabidopsis thaliana in In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

1
Department of Biology and Biotechnology “Charles Darwin”, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Roma, Italy
2
Department of Biochemical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Roma, Italy
3
Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
4
Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Roma, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030708
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroinflammation and Cell Death)
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Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the primary form of dementia in the elderly. One of the main features of AD is the increase in amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide production and aggregation, leading to oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Polyphenols are well known for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects and have been proposed as possible therapeutic agents against AD. Here, we investigated the effects of a polyphenolic extract of Arabidopsis thaliana (a plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family) on inflammatory response induced by Aβ. BV2 murine microglia cells treated with both Aβ25–35 peptide and extract showed a lower pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α) and a higher anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13) cytokine production compared to cells treated with Aβ only. The activation of the Nrf2-antioxidant response element signaling pathway in treated cells resulted in the upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 mRNA and in an increase of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity. To establish whether the extract is also effective against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in vivo, we evaluated its effect on the impaired climbing ability of AD Drosophila flies expressing human Aβ1–42. Arabidopsis extract significantly restored the locomotor activity of these flies, thus confirming its neuroprotective effects also in vivo. These results point to a protective effect of the Arabidopsis extract in AD, and prompt its use as a model in studying the impact of complex mixtures derived from plant-based food on neurodegenerative diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; amyloid beta; polyphenols; Alzheimer’s disease; BV2 cells; interleukins; Nrf2; NF-κB Arabidopsis thaliana; amyloid beta; polyphenols; Alzheimer’s disease; BV2 cells; interleukins; Nrf2; NF-κB
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Mattioli, R.; Francioso, A.; d’Erme, M.; Trovato, M.; Mancini, P.; Piacentini, L.; Casale, A.M.; Wessjohann, L.; Gazzino, R.; Costantino, P.; Mosca, L. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of A Polyphenolic Extract from Arabidopsis thaliana in In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Alzheimer’s Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 708.

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