Next Article in Journal
Cirsiliol Suppressed Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in B16F10 Malignant Melanoma Cells through Alteration of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB Signaling Pathway
Next Article in Special Issue
Decoding the Mechanism of Action of Rapid-Acting Antidepressant Treatment Strategies: Does Gender Matter?
Previous Article in Journal
Modeling of Disordered Protein Structures Using Monte Carlo Simulations and Knowledge-Based Statistical Force Fields
Previous Article in Special Issue
FKBP5 Gene Expression Predicts Antidepressant Treatment Outcome in Depression

Depression and Sleep

Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Research Group Sleep Endocrinology, 80804 Munich, Germany
Centre of Mental Health, 85049 Ingolstadt, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 607;
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Psychiatry)
Impaired sleep is both a risk factor and a symptom of depression. Objective sleep is assessed using the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). Characteristic sleep-EEG changes in patients with depression include disinhibition of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, changes of sleep continuity, and impaired non-REM sleep. Most antidepressants suppress REM sleep both in healthy volunteers and depressed patients. Various sleep-EEG variables may be suitable as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of therapy response in depression. In family studies of depression, enhanced REM density, a measure for frequency of rapid eye movements, is characteristic for an endophenotype. Cordance is an EEG measure distinctly correlated with regional brain perfusion. Prefrontal theta cordance, derived from REM sleep, appears to be a biomarker of antidepressant treatment response. Some predictive sleep-EEG markers of depression appear to be related to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical system activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; sleep; sleep EEG; biomarkers; antidepressants; cordance depression; sleep; sleep EEG; biomarkers; antidepressants; cordance
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Steiger, A.; Pawlowski, M. Depression and Sleep. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 607.

AMA Style

Steiger A, Pawlowski M. Depression and Sleep. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(3):607.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Steiger, Axel, and Marcel Pawlowski. 2019. "Depression and Sleep" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 3: 607.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop