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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030476

Energy-Dependent Endocytosis Is Involved in the Absorption of Indomethacin Nanoparticles in the Small Intestine

1
Faculty of Pharmacy, Kindai University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502, Japan
2
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 180 Yamashiro-Cho, Tokushima 770-8514, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface-Functionalized Nanoparticles as Drug Carriers)
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Abstract

We previously reported that oral formulations containing indomethacin nanoparticles (IND-NPs) showed high bioavailability, and, consequently, improved therapeutic effects and reduced injury to the small intestine. However, the pathway for the transintestinal penetration of nanoparticles remained unclear. Thus, in this study, we investigated whether endocytosis was related to the penetration of IND-NPs (72.1 nm) using a transcell set with Caco-2 cells or rat intestine. Four inhibitors of various endocytosis pathways were used [nystatin, caveolae-dependent endocytosis (CavME); dynasore, clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CME); rottlerin, macropinocytosis; and cytochalasin D, phagocytosis inhibitor], and all energy-dependent endocytosis was inhibited at temperatures under 4 °C in this study. Although IND-NPs showed high transintestinal penetration, no particles were detected in the basolateral side. IND-NPs penetration was strongly prevented at temperatures under 4 °C. In experiments using pharmacological inhibitors, only CME inhibited penetration in the jejunum, while in the ileum, both CavME and CME significantly attenuated penetration. In conclusion, we found a novel pathway for the transintestinal penetration of drug nanoparticles. Our hypothesis was that nanoparticles would be taken up into the intestinal epithelium by endocytosis (CME in jejunum, CavME and CME in ileum), and dissolved and diffused in the intestine. Our findings are likely to be of significant use for the development of nanomedicines. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticle; endocytosis; oral route; indomethacin; drug delivery system nanoparticle; endocytosis; oral route; indomethacin; drug delivery system
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ishii, M.; Fukuoka, Y.; Deguchi, S.; Otake, H.; Tanino, T.; Nagai, N. Energy-Dependent Endocytosis Is Involved in the Absorption of Indomethacin Nanoparticles in the Small Intestine. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 476.

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